Großherzogtum Parhe (German)
팔히 니아 대공국 (Korean)
Palhi Nia Daegonggug
팔햌 족툼 (Parhasque)
"For the Triumph of Parhe and the Deterioration of the World"
"Für den Triumph von Parhe und der Verschlechterung der Welt" (German)
"팔히의 승리에 과 대한 세상의 악화" (Korean)
"Palhiui Seungrie Gwa Daehan Sesangui Akhwa"
"용 라모 노 팔해 카부 다이 디카와 노 다이 퐈사타" (Parhasque)
"Yong Ramo No Palhi Kabu Dai Dikawa No Dai Pwasata"
Russian, Udege, Xibe
Foreign Other 04.47%
Indigenous Other 01.27%
350,842.81 sq. mi
(13,104.20 km2/5,059.56 sq. mi)
(895,574.51 km2/345,783.25 sq. mi)
yyyy. m. d. (AD)
Parhe, officially the Grand Duchy of Parhe, is a sovereign state in Northeast Asia. Parhe borders Russia to the Northeast and China to the North and West but is otherwise surrounded by water; clockwise from the northeast, Parhe faces the Ilbon Sea, Kanmon Straits,Seto Inland Sea, Pacific Ocean, Sea of Korea, and Bohai Sea. Parhe also shares maritime borders with two additional states, facing Japan across the Kanmon Straits and Seto Inland Sea and Kelnoriem in the Sea of Korea. Politically, Parhe consists of seven provinces and one special city, the capital of Rakrang.
Spanning over nine hundred thousand square kilometers, or approximately sixty percent larger than metropolitan France, Parhe occupies a vast region which consists of the Korean Peninsula, Whitetop Mountains, southern Liao Plain, Saikai, and the former Soviet republic of Anwon. Combined with a population of 171.1 million, concentrated on the Korean Peninsula, Parhe has a population density of 188 residents per square kilometer. Nearly three out of ten Parhics live in the Onyakotoness Region, a large metropolitan area anchored by Parhe's most populous city Wiryeseong, Michuhol, Pyongyang, and Busogap.
The Parhean foundation myth claims that the first state in the region was Joseon in 2357 BC, but this is unsupported by evidence and Joseon only began appearing in historic records during the 8th Century BC. Joseon and its contemporaries, Jin and Puyo, were followed by the Four Kingdoms Period, an era lasting six centuries that was dominated by the states of Baekje, later also known as Koryo, Gaya, Goguryeo, and Silla. The four kingdoms were unified in the early 8th Century AD, when Baekje conquered Silla in a short war. Facing the threat of war with the Mongolian Empire in the 1220s, Baekje fell into a short civil war, which resulted in Baekje being renamed Parhe and submitting peacefully to the Mongolian Empire. Kyushu and its surrounding islands were conquered during the Imjin War. Parhe lost a large portion of its northern territory to the Russian Empire throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries, spurring Parhe to court other European powers into alliances. From 1832 until the end of the Great War in 1918, Parhe remained a vassal state of the British Empire, under which Parhe received a large number of immigrants from the Austrian Empire. Parhe reunified with its Eastern territories in 1992, following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Currently an advanced and prosperous constitutional monarchy, Parhe has a unitary form of government and is ruled by a hereditary grand duke. Parhe has a large economy fueled by the nation’s abundant natural resources and large chaebols, family owned conglomerates which dominate the economy and are well known in many foreign countries. Characteristically a welfare state with public spending often approaching fifty percent of the country’s GDP, Parhe has a considerably high standard of life, with extraordinarily low mortality rates, and a high life expectancy. Because of the nation's focus on higher education and a cultural drive for academia, Parhe scores highly on the Human Developmental Index. Despite this, Parhe is regularly criticized internationally and domestically for the state's hawkish foreign policy and its human rights record, particularly the treatment of the remaining Tungusic peoples who have a complex history in the nation. Parhe has three national languages, German, Korean, and Parhasque, which, together with Parhe's fourth official language English, function as the working languages in Parhic society, with the majority of citizens being multilingual. Parhe also have an additional six languages which have regional or limited recognition.
1 Etymology & Names
8.10 Other Visual Arts
Main Article: Etymology of Parhe
The name Parhe is derived from Song No Parhe, which translates directly to Sea of Parhe and is named after the Parhasque name for the Bohai Sea. It is believed in Parhic traditional lore that Maripgan Go-Han Livkor renamed the Empire of Baekje following the Noble Revolution to distance his rule from that of his predecessor, and sister, Go-Han Ikemira; however, this is contested as there is no other evidence supporting the link between the sea and the state. The origins for the Parhasque name of the sea, as well as the state. is better established. Written as "팔히," the term Parhe is most often translated from Parhasque to mean "Pure Tiger." Located directly west of central Parhe, the Bohai Sea has historically been associated with the White Tiger in Parhic culture; adopted from Chinese astrology, the White Tiger represents the west. While the color black is associated with purity in Parhic culture, pure in this context is often considered to be symbolic of the color white, as white was historically associated with purity in the southern regions of the Korean Peninsula and China.
The country of Parhe has several derivatives and demonyms that are each used in different context. Balhae’in was commonly used prior to the 20th Century as an all-encompassing demonym for Parhe. Balhae'in is now rare in contemporary works and has nationalistic and xenophobic connotations, outside of academic papers. The term Parhasque is used exclusively for a widespread language native to the region, not to be confused with Korean, and its varieties or dialects. Parhean is only used to refer to the government of Parhe, proper nouns, and non-human biota, as well as in some historical context. Parhic is used to describe residents or citizens of the state and the Parhic cultural group. The latter use of the word would include Koreans, Tunguistic peoples, and many early migrant groups, such as Parhic Germans and the Mori, regardless of citizenship and place of residence. Common entities and objects, political and social institutions, currency, and Parhe's society are also described as being Parhic, rather than Parhean. For certain subjects, the uses of Parhean and Parhic overlap, in which case tradition dictates the correct form. Increasingly, both terms are considered acceptable in such situations and the practice of using Parhic in place of Parhean, even in areas traditionally restricted to the latter, has emerged.
Main Article: Alternate Names of Parhe
In most languages, the name used for Parhe has origins in the current Parhe state or the former kingdom of Koryo. Although the Parhic government has requested that all foreign governments and intergovernmental organizations employ the name Parhe, many European and Middle Eastern languages commonly use a variant of Korea or, less commonly, Corea. The name Corea stems from the Polos' Expedition, as the Yuan Dynasty continued to refer Parhe as Gaoli, transcribed into Italian as Cauli, when visited by the Polos. Over time, the spelling was corrupted to Core and then Korea. Within Parhe, Korea as a geographic term is commonly used to refer to the Korean Peninsula.
Other names used less commonly for Parhe include Bohai, Hania, and Solongos. Bohai is a variant of Parhe that was used to a limited extent during the early modern period, being based on the Mandarin pronunciation of Parhe's namesake, the Bohai Sea. Hania is an English term adopted by the Parhic government during the mid-1600s, constructed by combining the name of the largest native ethnic group, the Han People, with the common Latin suffix for place names. The name for Parhe in Mongolian since the Mongolian Empire, Solongos is another name for Parhe, being most commonly found in Central Asia, the Middle East, and Siberia.
Main Article: History of Parhe
Main Article: Parhic Prehistory
The first hominids to occupy the modern territories of Parhe are believed to be Homo erectus, who reached the region during the late-Middle Pleistocene. Parhe's neolithic era, often divided into the Jeulmun and Mumun Periods, began approximately in 8000 BC and lasted until 2000 BC, although the Mumun Period lasted longer. While a few semi-agricultural settlements are found in the southern Korean Peninsula dating back to 5000 BC, Korea and Manchuria was mainly occupied by hunter-gatherer societies, unlike with most other neolithic eras which are characterized by agricultural settlements. Instead, this time-period is called Parhe's Neolithic Era because of the abundance decorated pottery vessels found throughout the Korean Peninsula and southern Manchuria dating from the period. Agriculture, dry-field and paddy-field, became common in the region around 1300 BC during the Mumun Period, as small chiefdoms rose throughout southern Korean.
According to Parhic folklore recorded in several ancient texts, the first state to emerge in the current territory of Parhe was Joseon in 2357 BC. The founder of Joseon is said to be Tangun, who was the son of a bear-woman and Hwanung, the son of the creator deity Hwanin. Tangun was said to rule over Joseon for seven centuries before being followed by ten nameless rulers, leading many Parhic historians to believe Tangun to be a title, rather than an individual. The exact time of establishment for Joseon is not established as the earliest archaeological evidence of a large centralized state dates to the 14th Century BC. The original capital of Joseon was called Wanggeom and is believed to have been on the northern banks of the Amnok River, near the river's mouth.
Joseon is first mentioned in text in Guanzi, attributed to philosopher Guan Zhong, from the 7th Century BC. In Guanzi, Joseon is briefly mentioned as a wealthy state ruled by a self-declared king under the title of Wang. According to the text, Joseon controlled southern Manchuria and the northern Korean Peninsula and was often at war with the Yan. Joseon bordered Puyo, which occupied a small portion of northern Manchuria, to the north and Jin, which occupied the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula, to the south; little is known about these two states but Puyo is believed to have been a close ally of Joseon, being ruled by the same dynastic house, while it is known that Jin rarely sent missions to Qi. Joseon was invaded by the Yan State during the 4th Century but was able to repel the invasion, holding onto the Liaosic Peninsula and executing General Qin Kai. However, in response to the failed invasion, King Bamsu moved the capital of Joseon to Pyongyang, then called Kisong, and farther from the western frontier.
The region entered a short Bronze Age in the 3rd Century BC, with bronze tools and writing, in the form of Hanja or Chinese characters, being transmitted from China. The 2nd and 1st centuries BC saw the gradual collapse of Jin, Joseon, and Puyo. Although a semi-centralized state, Jin devolved into Samhan, three loosely related confederacies called Byeonhan, Jinhan, and Mahan, by the end of the 2nd Century. The Chinese Han Dynasty unsuccessfully invaded Joseon in 109 BC, greatly weakened the ancient kingdom; the war led to rebellions by local fiefs formerly under the loyalty of the king and more invasions by Samhan. Joseon had completely collapsed by the mid-1st Century BC, being succeeded by Dongye in the south, Goguryeo in the north, and Okjeo on the eastern coast of Korea. Puyo outlived Jin and Joseon but was gradually absorbed by Goguryeo and ceased to exist by the 2nd Century AD.
Over time, Byeonhan, Jinhan, and Mahan evolved into Gaya, Silla, and Baekje, respectively, while Goguryeo, led by Dongmyeong, a former prince of Buyeo and son of the first king of Puyo Hae Mo-su, reconquered Okjeo and northern Dongye. Other minor kingdoms to emerge during this period included Tang on Jeju, not to be confused with the Tang Dynasty of Imperial China, and Usan, a state for which little information is available, on the Argonaut and Liancourt Islands.
Main Article: Four Kingdoms of Parhe
The Four Kingdoms of Parhe consisted of Baekje, Gaya, Goguryeo, and Silla, which together dominated the region from the early 4th Century AD to the fall of Silla in the 8th Century AD. Gaya, or Kaya, was a loose confederacy of over a dozen minor statelets occupying most of the Nakdong River basin; Gaya shared borders with Baekje and Silla, both of which exercised strong influence over members of the confederacy. Gaya slowly centralized before its partition in the 5th Century AD by Baekje and Silla but never acted uniformly, with many of the local chiefdoms and kingdoms having conflicting and irregular alliances with Gaya's larger neighbors. Gaya is notable among the four major states in that it had little to no contact with China, to the point that it is not mentioned in any known Chinese documents. In contrast to its relations with China, Gaya regularly traded with and sent missions to the Japanese archipelago.
Silla, believed to have originally been called Seora, was the oldest of the four states, being founded in 57 BC by Bak Hyeokgeose and refugees from Joseon. As a hereditary absolute monarchy, Silla had a complex aristocratic system in the bone rank system, which had great influence on the government, housing, marriage, and education. Occupying the eastern half of the Korean Peninsula, from Gaya up to modern-day Wonsan, Silla was geographically the second largest yet also the second least populous and weakest state, being only more populous than Gaya. Due to its location, being farthest from China, and lack of maritime capabilities, Silla remained less Sinic than either Baekje or Goguryeo but proved to be the most fervent adopter of Buddhism, brought to Silla by merchants from Baekje. Despite the distance, Silla often allied with the dynasties of China in Silla's endeavors to conquer its neighbors. Specifically, Silla allied with the Sui and Tang Dynasties on numerous occasions to subdue Goguryeo. These wars wore down the political class of Silla and reputation of the Silla, and Chinese, military, which lead to Baekje's advantageous invasion of Silla shortly afterwards.
The largest of the four states by in population and expanse, Goguryeo was a notable great power for much of its existence. Despite occupying most of Joseon's former territory, as well as territory in China Proper and Mongolia, Goguryeo was perhaps one of the the more removed from the fallen kingdom; in contrast to Silla and Baekje, Goguryeo's ruling class distanced itself from Joseon and identified instead with Puyo, which itself fell victim to Goguryeo expansion in 184 AD. Following the end of Puyo, Taewang, or Emperor, Gogukcheon proclaimed Goguryeo to be the successor of Puyo. Goguryeo was also the most militant of the states, continually expanding at the expense of its neighbors, which had left Goguryeo with a few reluctant allies in the vicinity. Goguryeo was invaded throughout the late 6th and early 7th centuries AD by joint Silla-Sui forces, which had minor repercussions on the two Parhic states but caused the disintegration of the Sui Dynasty. A series of coups and internal changes weakened Goguryeo, which had allied with Baekje under Taewang Yeongnyu, leading to another failed invasion by Silla and China, then ruled by the Tang Dynasty. Although again victorious, Goguryeo was devastated by the war and annexed by Baekje in 675 AD.
Controlling the western half of Korea up to central Hwanghae, Baekje, also translated as Paekche, was the youngest of the kingdoms, emerging as a centralized kingdom in 18 BC. Founded by Prince Onjo of Goguryeo, Baekje nonetheless declared itself the successor of Joseon. Under the rule of Eoraha, or King, Goi, Baekje began distancing its ancestral links to Goguryeo and fabricated an ancestry directly connecting the monarchy to the rulers of Joseon, bypassing Puyo. A middle power with a proud maritime tradition and a large navy, Baekje had intensive contact with the Southern Dynasties of China and Ancient Japan; relations with China centered largely on commerce and died down with the dominance of the Tang Dynasty, which developed an antagonistic relationship with Baekje. Japan maintained a close alliance with Baekje from Baekje's formation until the rise of the Mongolian Empire. Baekje was the least militarily active during the early and middle Four Kingdoms Period, experiencing few incursions and rarely involving itself in foreign wars. Relations permanently soured with neighboring Silla in the late 5th Century followed the Baekje annexation of what remained of Gaya in 492 AD. Taking advantage of the wars between China, Goguryeo, and Silla during the 6th and 7th centuries, Baekje, untouched by war, peacefully incorporated its then-ally Goguryeo with the death of Taewang Bojang. The Baekje-Silla War, lasting three years from 756 to 759 AD, began with the invasion of Silla by Baekje, taking advantage of the An Lushan Rebellion in Silla's ally, the Tang Dynasty. The war ended with the annexation of Silla and its client state, Usan, three years later.
Main Article: History of the Baekje Empire
Emerging from the Baekje-Silla War as the first state to hold control over all of modern day Parhe, Baekje was a kingdom extending from the Liao River in the west and Amur River in the north to the Pacific in the east and the Parhean Strait to the south. Faced with a hostile Liao Dynasty to the west and the inhospitable, sparsely populated, taiga to the north, Baekje was left largely isolated from the rest of the East Asian mainland. It is believed that in order to diminish the influence Chinese culture had on Baekje, Eoraha Senha ordered the creation of a local writing system for Korean, leading to Hangul; however, even with the support of the monarchy, Hangul's popularity was limited to the sangmin class until several decades later with the widespread adoption of the metal movable-type printing press, which was more efficient with the Hangul writing system. Despite being characterized by isolation, or perhaps because of it, the early period of Baekje rule was considered a golden age of the maritime exploration and the arts, heavily influenced by that of the Japanese archipelago. The development of Baekje culture and art was further effected by the arrival of Tungusic migrants from North Asia, most numerous among them being the Mohe.
With the reemergence of Sinism, a standardized form of local shamanism adapted for an agricultural society, at the expense of Buddhism, a religion associated with the former kingdom of Silla and unpopular within Baekje outside the realm of art, the Baekje aristocracy sponsored numerous lavish shrines and temples throughout the kingdom, many of which have survived to the modern day and have been re-purposed as churches or tourist sites. At its height during the 11th Century, the population of Wiryeseong, the capital city, swelled to well over one million residents, not including the slave population, making Wiryeseong one of the most populous cities at the time. The nearby port of Michuhol became a major hub of trade, welcoming goods and merchants from Angkor, Chola, Japan, Srivijaya, Sunda, and the Song. Baekje was so prosperous at the time that, even despite hostilities, the kingdom was commonly referred to as "the prosperous country of the East" throughout the Liao. Baekje's first expansion during this period was the formal annexation of Tang, a longtime vassal to Baekje, during the 10th Century.
Baekje was frequently at war with the Liao Dynasty, which failed in invading Baekje on three occasions before the 12th Century. Although successful in repelling the invading forces, Baekje was politically weakened and faced ethnic rebellions in the northern territories, as well as disputes within the ruling house. Persuaded by the state council, Eoraha Ikemira allied with Temujin of the Mongols in the late 12th Century to partition the dying Liao Dynasty, with the intention of simultaneously eliminating the more troublesome members of her government and military. The Mongol-Baekje War lasted from 1208 to 1224 but only led to incremental gains for Baekje, with annexing Liucheng and absorbing the bulk of the fleeing Khitan people. The was also only postponed civil war as, following the fall of the Liao, the Mongol Empire began demanding tribute from Baekje. As relations soured and signs appears of a coming Mongol invasion, after demands of tribute were rejected, several officials, with support from the landed nobility, coordinated a coup in 1227, deposing of Ikemira and installing her younger brother Livkor as the Eoraha of Baekje. Under Eoraha Livkor, later retitled Maripgan, Baekje was renamed Parhe and submitted itself as a vassal to the Mongol Empire.
Main Article: Middle Parhe Period
Parhe thrived under Mongol suzerainty, having become reconnected with China and the Asian interior for trade purposes. Parhic forces assisted in the invasions of China, Tibet, and Anatolia; these wars benefited Parhe, favored by the Mongol rulers for peacefully submitting to and greatly aiding the Mongolian Empire in conquests, as returned plunder and trade with the Middle East and Europe, both of which helped to replenish the state's treasury. Through the reestablishment of the Silk Road, Parhe received numerous agricultural crops, including grapes, onions, and pomegranates, ivory, and woven products, among others, and sent celadon, silk, and wares. This period is also notable for the introduction of Abrahamic religions, with many Muslim merchants settling in Parhe and the introduction of Christianity, which attracted a large following among the lower class. During the reign of Maripgan Sozevo, Parhe distanced itself from the Mongolian Empire, refusing to participate in the failed invasions of Japan, a former ally which shared many cultural traits, and using the Kaidu-Kublai War to reassert its independence. Tensions between Parhe and Mongolia lead to Maripgan Kibacell ordering an invasion of the Yuan Dynasty during the late-14th Century, intending to lend assistance to the White Lotus during the Red Turban Rebellion. With the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, Maripgan Daxo styled himself as an emperor.
With the disintegration of the Mongol Empire and rising tensions with the newly established Yuan Dynasty in China, Parhe was cut off from the major, overland trade routes through Eurasia and once again relied on its maritime heritage for cultural and economic exchanges. Parhe's newfound isolation sparked two centuries of extensive, state-sponsored voyages, with the hopes of finding direct lines of passage to the Levant, Egypt, and Europe, starting with Sokukeut's Expedition in 1314; although Sokukeut only reached as far as Irian, subsequent explorers recorded voyages to Chibuene, Karaginsky, and Sinai. Voyages, found to be unprofitable vanity projects along with the massive ships used for such expeditions, began to taper off in the 15th Century in response to border conflicts with Jurchens from present-day Amur and Khabarovsk and more frequent raids by wokou and Chinese pirates; the last major state-sponsored voyage returned in 1554 and was followed by several private ventures that saw little commercial success. Nonetheless, these voyages pushed the limits of the Parhic known world and linked the kingdom with a vibrant trade network that existed around the Indian Ocean.
In reaction to rising piracy in the region, Parhic forces invaded Tsushima, leading to a short war called the Gihae Eastern Expedition. The war resulted in the So clan of Tsushima entering tributary relations with Parhe and a temporary end to wokou piracy, at the cost of relations between the Ashikaga Shogunate of Japan and Parhe. The following decades are characterized by limited embassies between the two states and the reemergence of piracy in the region, many of
which were traced to China. With contact nearly nonexistent between the two states by the Sengoku period and forged documents being received regularly by the So clan of Tsushima, Parhe adopted a restrained yet leery policy towards Japan. Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japan invaded Parhe on two occasions, in 1592 and 1597, with intentions of conquering Asia. The Japanese forces were quickly repelled in both instances by the well seasoned navy, commanded by Admiral Yi Sun-sin, the Righteous Army, or local citizens who formed irregular armies to defend the nation, and European garrisons stationed on Korea. In response to Japan's failed invasion, Parhe invaded and annexed large portions of the Japanese islands. Though short, this war was instrumental in the rise of modern nationalism in Parhe and Parhe's shift from a multicultural empire to a nation state.
Parhic vessels began encountering Portuguese merchants and explorers in the early 1500s through Melaka and major trade centers of the Indian subcontinent. Elated to again make direct contact with Europeans, and possibly gain access to European goods and markets, Maripgan Dalgotie sent an embassy to Portuguese and Spanish holdings surrounding the Indian and Pacific Oceans, which were later followed by embassies to Byzantine, Durland, France, and the Netherlands during the succeeding decades. By the 1560s, several European powers set up factories throughout Parhe, primarily near the mouths of important rivers like the Amnok, Han, Liao, and Nakdong. These factories became important hubs of trade, processing goods from Africa, Europe, and the Americas, and triggered a surge in Oiigrant, or the study of Europe and its cultures. In the years following the establishment of factories, Parhe underwent several drastic changes, most notable among them being the widespread adoption of arquebuses and wider acceptance of Christianity, which was previously seen as the faith of the poor.
In the mid-17th Century, Parhe's northern territory between the Sukhbaatar Mountain Range and the Haixi-Amur River became contested with the Tsardom of Russia, which has recently conquered Siberia and reach the Pacific Ocean. As as result of Cossacks encroaching on Parhe's land and overwhelming the few natives in the sparsely populated region, accompanied by the Russian military, Parhe was forced back to the Haixi River in 1816, when the Treaty of Lantora was signed between the two empires recognizing the river to be their border. With the lost of territory and lacking regional allies, bordering the now-isolationist Japan and a China controlled by the unfriendly Manchu Dynasty, Maripgan Omioru approached the Durlish Empire to arrange subordinate relations, transforming Parhe into a client state of Durland. Following the short War in Gama, in which Russia pushed further into Parhic territory, Parhe was made a Durlish dependent territory in 1832.
Main Article: Contemporary History of Parhe
Main Article: Geography of Parhe
Main Article: Climate of Parhe
Main Article: Environmental Issues in Parhe
Main Article: Biota of Parhe
Main Article: Government of Parhe
Main Article: Foreign Relations of Parhe
Main Article: Human Rights Violations in Parhe
Main Article: Parhic Armed Forces
Main Article: List of Political Factions in Parhe
Main Article: Administrative Divisions of Parhe
Main Article: Demographics of Parhe
Main Article: Education in Parhe
Main Article: Health in Parhe
Main Article: Religion in Parhe
Main Article: List of Largest Cities in Parhe
Main Article: Economy of Parhe
Main Article: Distribution of Income in Parhe
Main Article: Infrastructure in Parhe
Main Article: Exports and Imports of Parhe
Main Article: Culture of Parhe
Main Article: Architecture of Parhe
Main Article: Parhic Cuisine
Main Article: Parhic Popular Culture
Main Article: Fashion in Parhe
Main Article: List of Holidays Celebrated in Parhe
Main Article: Parhic Literature
Main Article: Sports in Parhe
Main Article: Science and Technology in Parhe