The Federation of North Germany (Bundesreich Norddeutschland) informally and more commonly called The North German Confederation or North Germany, is a global Confederation of North German States under a Constitutional Monarchy. In Europe, it is bordered on the north by the Kingdom of Denmark, on the south by The South German Federation and The Kingdom of Bohemia, by the east by The Second Polish Republic and on the west by The Kingdom of Netherlands and the French Empire. Globally, the Realm borders The British, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Ethiopian Empires as well as The Republic of Egypt and the Orange Free State in Africa, The Dutch Empire in Oceania and The Republic of China in China, though it does also share maritime borders with The Spanish and British Empires in The Caribbeans. North Germany covers a total of 7,962,443.25 square kilometers and has has an estimated population of 93,376,500, though only 436,708.89 square kilometers of it is the Realm's "Metropol", which hosts 56,500,000. North Germany comprises of 5 Kingdoms, 3 Grand Duchies, 9 Duchies, 3 Principalities, three Free and Hansetic Cities, one Free City, and one Capital City, as well as three Dominions, two Colonies, and one Settlement.
The North German Confederation is one of the world's eight Great Powers. Considering itself the Spiritual successor to the now-defunct German Confederation, it has been entrenched in a bitter and harsh rivalry with its southern neighbor, the South German Confederation for the last 38 years, which is also a Great Power and also claims to be the spiritual successor to the German Confederation. As one of the Great Powers, North Germany exerts influence and power in the Worldwide Politics using its oversees territories, large and modern Air Force and Navy, and has been trying to prevent a global conflict rise, though it has long since discovered that it may be nigh inevitable at this point.
The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch (compare Dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.
North Germany is the final result in the cultural unification of those with North German culture, and it stands opposed to "South Germany", which is the result of the cultural unification of many South German people. The standard way to refer to a citizen of North Germany is as a German or North German.
Calls for a cultural unification of the German Peoples came into prevalence during the Napoleonic Wars. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, which had in truth been considered a 'realm of Germans' by most of its adherents, and with Napoleon's newly created Confederation of the Rhine, the idea of a state formed for, and by Germans came to be appealing to the German Peoples. The problem was, of course, that the two main German States in Prussia and Austria had no intention of giving up their own autonomy, nor to give up their own non-German lands.
The German Confederation itself was formed on 8 June 1815, in the Congress of Vienna. With Napoleon's crushing defeat in France and later again in Waterloo, the Allied Powers of Europe were quick to realize that a Confederated Germany would be required to manage the polities of the numerous states in Central Europe, and that was why The German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a later treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation, which was not concluded and signed by parties until 15 May 1820. At its conception in 1820, the Confederation had thirty-nine members, but it was in truth dominated by the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, which used it to bring the smaller German states into their own spheres of influence.
In 1830, the Belgian Revolution in The United Kingdom of Netherlands brought Europe into another crisis again. France and Prussia, The Dutch's main neighbors, were quick to intervene in the matter politically, after The British Empire was persuaded to let Mainland matters run their own course. When it became obvious that the Dutch were incapable of maintaining their own sovereignty and keeping the Flemish-Walloon revolts at bay, Prussia and France quickly occupied the United Netherlands, and after a few weeks of negotiation in The Hague, France annexed the French-cultured Walloon territories, while Prussia forced The Netherlands to give independence to the Limburg territories and Luxembourg in order to bring them into the German Confederation.
The Revolution of 1848
For the majority of its early years, the German Confederation had been dominated by Austria and Prussia, two very dictatorial states with conservative and reactionary ideologies. In truth, part of the reason Britain and Russia agreed to allow a German Confederation to be formed was to maintain Germany's rising nationalism, just as they had used Austria to maintain Italy and France's Jacobin sentiments. From the very beginning of the Viennan system in 1815, Austria and Prussia had used heavy-handed suppression, secret police, and at some points even military to keep the nationalist and liberal Germans down. This came to a close in 1848.
The Summer of 1848 was a very dangerous period in European history. The suppression, autocracy, and domination of politics by the reactionary and conservative monarchies of France, Austria, and Prussia -along with a number of other European States- led to a series of wide-spread revolts. Initially, a Revolution in 22-24 February 1848 brought the French Monarchy down and established a "Second" French Republic. The Prussian and Austrian states, feeling threatened, called for a general mobilization of their troops to deal with the newborn Republic as efficiently as possible, but this was put to a halt, as Vienna fell into a protest on 13 March.
The Large demonstration, though not even remotely as radical as that of the French, resulted in the resignation of Prince von Metternich as chief minister to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, and his going into exile in Britain, and from that moment on, protests started appearing all over The German Confederation.
Ferdinand immediately appointed new, nominally liberal, ministers and later drafted a constitution in late April 1848, where the majority of the people were still denied enfranchisement. Rejecting these concessions, the Students and Working class people of Vienna returned to the streets from May 26 through 27, 1848, erecting barricades to prepare for an army offense. Ferdinand and his family fled to Innsbruck, where they spent the next few months surrounded by the loyal peasantry of the Tyrol. Ferdinand issued two manifestos on May 16, 1848 and June 3, 1848, which gave concessions to the people. He converted the Imperial Diet into a Constituent Assembly to be elected by the people. Other concessions were less substantial, and generally addressed the reorganizing and unification of Germany.
Ferdinand returned to Vienna from Innsbruck on August 12, 1848. Soon after his return, the working-class populace hit the streets again on August 21, 1848 to protest high unemployment and the government's decree to reduce wages. On August 23, 1848, Austrian troops opened fire on unarmed demonstrators and shot several.
In late September 1848, Emperor Ferdinand, who was also King Ferdinand V of Hungary, decided to send Austrian and Croatian troops to Hungary to crush a democratic rebellion there. On September 29, 1848 the Austrian troops were defeated by the Hungarian revolutionary forces. On October 6 through 7, 1848, the citizens of Vienna had demonstrated against the emperor's actions against forces in Hungary. As a result, Emperor Ferdinand I fled Vienna on October 7, 1848, taking up residence in the fortress town of Olomouc in Moravia, in the eastern empire. On December 2, 1848, Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his nephew Franz Joseph.
Similarly, in March 1848, crowds of people gathered in Berlin to present their demands in an "address to the king". King Frederick William IV, taken by surprise, verbally yielded to all the demonstrators' demands, including parliamentary elections, a constitution, and freedom of the press. He promised that "Prussia was to be merged forthwith into Germany."
This was however proven to be nothing more than words, as the police reacted on March 13. The army charged a group of people returning from a meeting in Tiergarten, killing one person and leaving many injured. In response, a mass demonstration occurred on March 18. After two shots were fired, fearing they'd have to fight 20,000 soldiers, the demonstrators erected barricades and a battle ensued, leaving hundreds deal. Frederick William attempted to placate the public, suggesting he would indeed proceed with reorganizing his government, and also approved arming the citizens.
On March 21, the King proceeded through the streets of Berlin to attend a mass funeral at the Friedrichshain cemetery for the civilians killed in the uprising. Appearing in the revolutionary Black-red-gold tricolor, the King also freed the Polish prisoners who had been planning a rebellion in the Polish territories ruled by Prussia. the 254 people killed were laid out on catafalques on the Gendarmenmarkt. Some 40,000 people accompanied these fallen demonstrators to their burial place at Friedrichshain.
On May 22, 1848, a Prussian elected assembly sat for the first time in Berlin. They were elected under the law of April 8, 1848, which allowed for universal suffrage and a two-stage voting system. Most of the deputies elected to the Berlin Assembly, called the Prussian National Assembly, were members of the burghers or liberal bureaucracy. They set about the task of writing a constitution "by agreement with the Crown."King Frederick William IV of Prussia unilaterally imposed a monarchist constitution to undercut the democratic forces. This constitution took effect on December 5, 1848. On December 5, 1848, the Berlin Assembly was dissolved and replaced with the bicameral legislature allowed under the monarchist Constitution. This legislature was composed of a Herrenhaus and a Landtag. Otto von Bismarck was elected to the first Landtag elected under the new monarchical constitution.
National Assembly in Frankfurt
While a number of similar revolts (with similar results) occurred in the smaller German States as well, things only came to a close in Frankfurt. On March 6, 1848, a group of German liberals began to make plans for an election to a German national assembly. This prototype Parliament met on March 31, in Frankfurt's St. Paul's Church. Its members called for free elections to an assembly for all of Germany – and the German states agreed. A Constituent National Assembly was elected and gathered in St. Paul's Church in Frankfurt am Main on May 18, 1848. Officially called the all-German National Assembly, it was composed of deputies democratically elected from various German states in late April and early May 1848. The deputies consisted of 122 government officials, 95 judges, 81 lawyers, 103 teachers, 17 manufacturers and wholesale dealers, 15 physicians, and 40 landowners. A majority of the Assembly were liberals. It became known as the 'professors' parliament,' as many of its members were academics in addition to their other responsibilities. The one working-class member was Polish and, like colleagues from the Tyrol, not taken seriously.
Starting on May 18, 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly worked to find ways to unite the various German states and to write a constitution. The Assembly was unable to pass resolutions and dissolved into endless debate. The main debates were the German Question (which was answered when Austria drafted a constitution for the entirety of its Empire, essentially opting out of any possible German Unification in 1848), the identity of a future German Cultural Union (A republic, an elective monarchy, or a monarchy?) as well as the level of centralism appropriate for a German State. These debates continued even as the reforms of the March Revolution were rolled back by the resurgent aristocracy and monarchy.
Eventually, the Prussian Monarchy reacted to the Revolutions in late 1848. The Prussian General von Wrangel led the troops who recaptured Berlin for the old powers, and King Frederick William IV of Prussia immediately rejoined the old forces. In November, the king dissolved the new Prussian parliament and put forth a constitution of his own which was based upon the work of the assembly, yet maintaining the ultimate authority of the king. Elaborated in the following years, the constitution came to provide for an upper house (Herrenhaus), and a lower house (Landtag), chosen by universal suffrage but under a three-class system of voting ("Dreiklassenwahlrecht"): representation was proportional to taxes paid, so that more than 80% of the electorate controlled only one-third of the seats.
Frederick William later refused to accept a crown for "all Germany", in public citing that he could not accept such a title without the consent of his peers but in private considering it "a crown from the gutter, disgraced by the stink of revolution, defiled with dirt and mud."
Austria and Prussia opted out of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849, and eventually the Prussian military began crushing the dissenters and revolutionaries all over the Confederation. By 1851, the Basic Rights had also been abolished nearly everywhere. In the end, the revolution fizzled because of the divisions between the various factions in Frankfurt, the calculating caution of the liberals, the failure of the left to marshal popular support and the overwhelming superiority of the monarchist forces. The Assembly was eventually dissolved on May 31, 1849
The Austro-Prussian duality
With the Frankfurt Parliament dissolved, the Prussian monarchy (which had in truth been the side favored by the parliament) supported the establishment of the Erfurt Union—a federation of German states, excluding Austria—by the free agreement of the German princes. This limited union under Prussia would have almost entirely eliminated Austrian influence on the other German states. Combined diplomatic pressure from Austria and Russia (a guarantor of the 1815 agreements that established European spheres of influence) forced Prussia to relinquish the idea of the Erfurt Union at a meeting in the small town of Olmütz in Moravia. In November 1850, the Prussians—specifically Radowitz and Frederick William—agreed to the restoration of the German Confederation under Austrian leadership. This became known as the Punctation of Olmütz, but among Prussians it was known as the "Humiliation of Olmütz."
Though appearing to be irrelevant, this only brought the true nature of the Confederation at focus. Prussia, the rising German State, attempting to topple the Old Order set by a long-older Austrian Empire.
In 1857, Frederick William of Prussia suffered a stroke and could no longer rule and was replaced by his brother William (Wilhelm, later, Kaiser Wilhelm). Meanwhile, Helmuth von Moltke had become chief of the Prussian General Staff in 1857, and Albrecht von Roon would become Prussian Minister of War in 1859. This shuffling of authority within the Prussian military establishment would have important consequences. Von Roon and William (who took an active interest in military structures) began reorganizing the Prussian army, while Moltke redesigned the strategic defense of Prussia by streamlining operational command. Prussian army reforms (especially how to pay for them) caused a constitutional crisis beginning in 1860 because both parliament and William—via his minister of war—wanted control over the military budget. William, crowned King Wilhelm I in 1861, appointed Otto von Bismarck to the position of Minister-President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck resolved the crisis in favor of the war minister.
Having realized that Great-Germany could never be formed, Bismarck began laying the groundwork for forming a Small-Germany, "Germany without Austria". To do that, he began his plans of dismantling Austrian influence in -primarily- Northern Germany, while also attempting to bring the southern states of Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg into the fold. He found his lucky shot in 1863 and the Schleswig-Holstein Question.
On 15 November 1863, King Christian IX of Denmark became king of Denmark and duke of Schleswig and Holstein. On 18 November 1863, he signed the Danish November Constitution and declared the Duchy of Schleswig a part of Denmark. The German Confederation saw this act as a violation of the London Protocol of 1852, which emphasized the status of the Kingdom of Denmark as distinct from the independent duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The populations of Schleswig and Holstein, furthermore, valued their separate status. The German Confederation could use the ethnicities of these duchies as a rallying cry: large portions of both Schleswig and Holstein were of German origin and spoke German in everyday life (though Schleswig had a sizable Danish minority). Diplomatic attempts to have the November Constitution repealed collapsed, and fighting began when Prussian and Austrian troops crossed the border into Schleswig on 1 February 1864. Initially, the Danes attempted to defend their country using an ancient earthen wall known as the Danevirke, but this proved futile. The Danes were no match for the combined Prussian and Austrian forces, and they could not rely on help from their allies in the other Scandinavian states because Denmark had nullified its alliance by violating the London Protocol. The Needle Gun, one of the first bolt action rifles to be used in conflict, aided the Prussians in both this war and the Austro-Prussian War two years later. The rifle enabled a Prussian soldier to fire five shots while lying prone, while its muzzle-loading counterpart could only fire one shot and had to be reloaded while standing. The Second Schleswig War resulted in victory for the combined armies of Prussia and Austria, and the two countries won control of Schleswig and Holstein in the concluding peace of Vienna, signed on 30 October 1864, though Prussia also annexed the small Danish colonies in Ghana (which later proved to be a good staging ground for their colonization of Gold Coast) and the West Indies.
The Brothers' War and the Creation of the North German Realm
With Schleswig and Holstein now under in German Confederation, Prussia immediately began influencing the two newly-independent duchies. This did not please the Austrians, who feared the now-prevalent dominance of Prussia in German Affairs. Austria brought the dispute to the German Diet, and also decided to convene the Diet of Holstein, Prussia declared that the Gastein Convention had thereby been nullified and invaded Holstein. The German Diet responded with a partial mobilization against Prussia, and in effect, Bismarck claimed the confederation was ended. In truth, Crown Prince Frederick was the only prevalent opposition to a war against Austria, which he called "Fratricide". History had no idea how close to the truth he was.
In 1866, Bismarck made an alliance with Italy, committing it to the war if Prussia entered one against Austria within three months, which was an obvious incentive for Bismarck to go to war with Austria within three months to divert Austrian strength away from Prussia. The timing of the declaration was perfect, because all other European powers were either bound by alliances that forbade them from entering the conflict, or had domestic problems that had priority. Britain had no stake economically or politically in war between Prussia and Austria. Russia was unlikely to enter on the side of Austria, due to ill will over Austrian support of the anti-Russian alliance during the Crimean War and Prussia had stood by Russia during the January Uprising in Poland whereas Austria had not. In addition, the French Emperor Napoleon III, believing Prussia to be the weaker of the two states, had declared neutrality in order to have a better diplomatic and military base to demand territory in the end of the war. Knowing the Great Powers were not going to intervene in the German War, Bismarck now only had the German states to worry about.
The formation of the German States in the beginning of the Austro-Prussian war was highly a "North Germany, led by Prussia" against "South Germany, led by Austria", though the Kingdoms of Saxony and Hanover, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Duchies of Nassau and Saxe-Meiningen, the Principalities of Reuss-Greiz and Schaumburg-Lippe, as well as Frankfurt in North Germany had sided with Austria as well.
The war itself happened in seven weeks. The first war between two major continental powers in seven years, it used many of the same technologies as the Second Italian War of Independence, including railways to concentrate troops during mobilization and telegraphs to enhance long-distance communication. The Prussian Army used von Dreyse's breech-loading needle gun, which could be rapidly loaded while the soldier was seeking cover on the ground, whereas the Austrian muzzle-loading rifles could only be loaded slowly, and generally from a standing position.
The majority of the battles occured in the Austrian territories in Bohemia. von Moltke had prepared for this war meticulously, and proved the Prussian military dominance by quickly mobilizing the army and advancing into Saxony and Bohemia, where Austria had planned to make a staging ground for an invasion of Silesia. The Prussians, led by their King, faced Austrians in the Battle of Königgrätz (Hradec Králové) on 3 July. The Prussian Elbe Army advanced on the Austrian left wing, and the First Army on the center, prematurely; they risked being counter-flanked on their own left. Victory therefore depended on the timely arrival of the Second Army on the left wing. This was achieved through the brilliant work of its Chief of Staff, Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal. Superior Prussian organization and élan decided the battle against Austrian numerical superiority, and the victory was near total, with Austrian battle deaths nearly seven times the Prussian figure. Austria rapidly sought peace after this battle.
Except for Saxony, the other German states allied to Austria played little role in the main campaign. Hanover's army defeated Prussia at the Second Battle of Langensalza on 27 June 1866, but, within a few days, they were forced to surrender by superior numbers. Prussian armies fought against Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden and the Hessian states on the river Main, reaching Nuremberg and Frankfurt. The Bavarian fortress of Würzburg was shelled by Prussian artillery, but the garrison defended its position until armistice day.
The Austrians were more successful in their war with Italy, defeating the Italians on land at the Battle of Custoza (24 June), and on sea at the Battle of Lissa (20 July). However, Italy's "Hunters of the Alps" led by Garibaldi defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Bezzecca on 21 July, conquered the lower part of Trentino, and moved towards Trento. The Prussian peace with Austria forced the Italian government to seek an armistice with Austria on 12 August. According to the Treaty of Vienna, signed on 12 October, Austria ceded Veneto to France, which, in turn, ceded it to Italy.
The Brother's war ended very quickly, but its effects did not. Bismarck's tactics had failed to discredit Austria in the South German dominions, and the loss of life in South Germany had brought the people of South Germany to come to dislike Prussia and its heavy-handed domineering. In the immediate treaty, Prussia annexed Hanover, Saxony, Nassau, Hesse-Kassel, Frankfurt, Schleswig and Holstein, forcing harsh indemnities on Bavaria while taking some of Württemberg as well, though they did not take anything from Austria -other than indemnities and a demand for Austria to recognize Prussian domination of German Affairs. These annexations proved to be Prussia's undoing.
The German Confederation, which had been de jure dissolved in 1864, was officially dissolved. Prussia in turn formed the "North German Confederation" with its smaller North-German neighbors, forcing Prussian domination in a very unfair constitution. Within the month after the treaty of Prague, Bavaria, Baden, and Württemberg began negotiations with Austria to join it as the "South German Confederation" in retaliation to Prussia's new Alliance. The Austrian Emperor, which had been preparing to declare the dual-monarchy of Austria-Hungary, was instead convinced to do something else: Dissolve the Austrian Empire.
In truth, this was almost irrelevant. Austria released its territories in Bohemia, Hungary, and the Balkans, instead putting Habsburg Kings and Dukes in charge of the new creations, though it kept most of the other territories directly neighboring Austria. The new three states were essentially satellite states of Austria in every way that mattered, however Austria failed to suppress the ethnic revolts that led to the ceding of most eastern Hungarian territories to the new Romanian state, and failed to defend the Balkan states when Bulgaria finally began finalizing its Imperial ambitions. Austria, Bavaria, Baden, and Württemberg joined in a new South German Confederation, which also took over the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern in South Germany by effectively blocking all "North Germans" from entering the territories of Bavaria, Baden, or Württemberg. Prussia later surrendered Hohenzollern to Württemberg, though to this day, they still claim it to be "the Heartland of the Prussian State".
Threatened by the prevalence of a South German Confederation and realizing that German Unification was now almost completely impossible short of a very harsh war of conquest for South Germany, the North German Confederation met in Berlin to reorganize itself in response to the more centralized "South German Federation" created by Austria. Bismarck persuaded Wilhelm to release all territories Prussia had annexed in the Treaty of Prague, as well as reforming the states already in the informal alliance led by Prussia. Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Sterlitz were reformed into the Kingdom of Mecklenburg, while Reuss-Gera and Reuss-Greiz were reformed into the Duchy of Reuss. The Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Saxony were released as independent states, while the Prussian annexations in Hesse were released and added to the Electorate of Hesse to form the Kingdom of Hesse. The North German Confederation, made of five kingdoms, three Grand Duchies, nine Duchies, three Principalities, and Four Free Cities eventually agreed to a constitution and agreed to join an official Federation. A debate between "Kaiserreich" and "Bundesreich" was settled by naming the state "Bundesreich" yet declaring the Head of State "Kaiser". The King of Prussia was unanimously elected as the President of the North German Realm, and promoted into the the title Emperor. A Constitution was drafted and a limited constitutional model giving full enfranchisement to all North German Males, as well as the right to join the Reichstag or Bundesrat (the two Chambers of the North German Parliament) was chosen to be the official "Federal Government" of North Germany, with a black-white-red tri-color chosen as the new Flag.
The French, British, and Russian Empires reluctantly recognized the two opponent states of South and North Germany, with North Germany overtaking the spot of Prussia and South Germany overtaking the spot of Austria in the formation of the Five Great Powers of Europe.
The Scramble for Africa
While colonization of Oceania and Africa had been ongoing for centuries, the lack of useful medicine against the disease-ridden inner Africa, as well as a lack of advanced weaponry and infrastructure had made colonization of most of the region nigh impossible. By 1840, the only considerable colonies in Africa and Oceania were the Dutch East Indies, the British Borneo, The British Cape colony, and the Portuguese Mozambique and Angola. By 1870, North Germany and the Spanish, Portuguese, British, American, and French Empires only had small trading posts and coastal settlements in Africa. The "Scramble for Africa" in truth began in 1876, with the discovery of minerals in the Congo Basin by the North German settlers and adventurers.
The foreign intelligence brought this news to France and Britain, and while Britain began expanding its South African colony by overtaking the Oranje, Transnaval, and Zulu states, France and North Germany fell into a colonial race. The two countries began expanding their Gold Coast colonies all the while marching for the Kongo region. North Germany colonized Cameroon and East Africa, using its naval bases in Gold Coast to connect its coastal acquisitions in Congo to the Eastern African Coasts. France, having already annexed Algeria, began moving southwards.
South German, Russian, and Dutch attempts in colonization of Africa failed, and France acquired American Liberia in 1882. As the countries continued expanding, rivalries, scrambles, and drifts along drawn borders began occurring. In particular the Liberian Crisis (The US and France, 1878), the Libyan crisis (Italy and The Ottoman Empire, 1879), the Moroccan-Spanish war (1880), the crisis in Togo (France and Germany, 1881), and the crisis in Kavango-Zambezi (North Germany, Portugal, and Britain, 1883) proved that this rapid colonization may reach a boiling point in the near future. The Congress of Berlin, held in 1884, was held by the North German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck in order to bring these clashes to an end, all the while attempt to stabilize the Balkans which had been suffering from Ottoman, Russian, Bulgarian, and British aggression.
The First stage of the Berlin Congress, often called "The Berlin Confrence", attended by France, Britain, Portugal, Spain, Italy, and The Netherlands first drew the colonial borders of Africa and Oceania, solidifying claims over lands yet not colonized and recognizing the formal independence of Egypt, Morocco, and Ethiopia. The three Great Powers (and four Secondary Powers) also agreed to ban, criminalize, and persecute slavery within their respective spheres of influence, agreed to have free trade throughout the Congo Basin as well as Lake Malawi, and east of this in an area south of 5° N, and to notify each other if they were creating any new colony (or assuming a new protectorate).
The official borders, drawn using the modern World Map, were finalized and a treaty, binding the signatories to adhering to it was signed by all attending powers.
The Second stage of the Berlin Congress was attended by France, Britain, Russia, South Germany, Italy, and Ottoman Empire, though its sessions were also attended by delegates from Greece, the Principality of Bulgaria, Romania, and the recently-liberated Serbia and Montenegro. Held in order to finalize the treaties regarding the hegemony and sattelites of the Ottomans, South Germans, Russians, as well as the British Empire, the Congress, leading to the Treaty of Berlin (signed one month later) led to the formal recognition of the Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro, as well as a finalized agreement of peace between The Eight Great Powers for a duration of seven years.
Originally held as a great achievement in peacemaking and stabilisation, the second congress was doomed to fail from the start. Only a year after the treaty had been signed, the Kingdom of Bulgaria invaded the liberated Serbia and Montenegro, and the great powers, having signed a treaty of peace, failed to intervene accordingly, and in a year, the Balkan War ended with Bulgarian domination of the Balkan regions, bringing it directly to the borders of South Germany, Hungary, and Romania. This was, of course, precisely what Bismarck had planned. Bulgaria, a natural ally to North Germany, ready to box in the South Germans in case of a future war just as Italy had in the last war between the two countries. In the following years, North German-Bulgarian relations would remain friendly, with Bulgaria soon industrializing the Balkans, modernizing its military, and becoming one of the Secondary Powers.
North Germany would continue its mission of colonization when the Conference of Berlin ended. In Four years, North German possessions in Ghana and Togo had been uplifted into an official Reichsprotektorat with a large German and native population, while Cameroon and North German South East Africa (now respectively part of the Colony of Kamerun and the Dominion of Mittelafrika) became Official Protectorates in 1889. With the successful colonization of Congo, Kenya, and East Africa in 1892, Southeast Africa was connected to the larger continuous possession in Central Africa to form Mittelafrika in the form of Reichsland Mittelafrika, which is the largest oversees region of North Germany.
Following the creation of the North German Realm, Bismarck and his Realpolitik dominated the political atmosphere in North Germany and even Europe proper for the next eighty years. He quickly began a campaign of industrialization, concentrating on heavy industry to modernize the North German Economy from a generally rural system to a very industrialized and urban model. The North German industry dominated Europe in a matter of years, and began successfully competing with The United States, France, and The British Empire for the highest spot, in its front Krupp, who's factory in Essen had expanded to the point it had become 'A great city with its own streets, its own police force, fire department and traffic laws. There are 150 kilometres of rail, 60 different factory buildings, 8,500 machine tools, seven electrical stations, 140 kilometres of underground cable and 46 overhead.'.
Bismarck's main political adversaries inside the Realm were the Socialists, the Non-German minorities (Eastern Slavs in particular) and the Catholics. To reduce the influence of Socialist thought -which had, indeed, arisen from Prussia itself- he formed the world's first modern Welfare State. North German workers enjoyed government-paid health, accident and maternity benefits, canteens, changing rooms and a national pension scheme, while in the private secto, large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members. The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. His policies against Socialists were possibly his only success in domestic affairs, as his Anti-catholic and Slavophobic campaigns failed hilariously -and were indeed possibly part of the reason he became so irate in the later years of his political career.
Bismarck began a "Cultural War" against the Catholics, a campaign of political isolation of the Catholic minority that was only enacted in the Prussian provinces. Enacted in order to secure the divide between South and North Germany, combat the Catholic opposition to Bismarck's coalition -and also to appease his Anti-Catholic Intellectual base-, the Kulturkampf began as early as 1871. He had the Catholic section of the Prussian Ministry of ecclesiastical and educational affairs abolished, depriving Catholics of their voice at the highest level. The system of strict government supervision of schools was applied only in Catholic areas; the Protestant schools were left alone. Later in 1873 the May Laws made the appointment of any priest dependent on his attendance at a North German university, as opposed to the seminaries that the Catholics typically used. Furthermore, all candidates for the ministry had to pass an examination in German culture before a state board which weeded out intransigent Catholics. Another provision gave the government a veto power over most church activities. A second law abolished the jurisdiction of the Vatican over the Catholic Church in Prussia; its authority was transferred to a government body controlled by Protestants.
His policies had poor results both in home and outwards. South Germany, already a great power, protested these laws extensively and used them as propaganda to bring more hatred to "Greater Prussia", as they had come to call North Germany, further widening the North-South German divide. In addition, the Anti-Catholic policies put North Germany in a poor light where France, Spain, and Italy -three largely Catholic Powers, the latter two of which allied with North Germany at that point- were concerned. Back home, By 1876, all the Prussian bishops were imprisoned or in exile, and a third of the Catholic parishes were without a priest. In the face of systematic defiance, the Bismarck government increased the penalties and its attacks, and were challenged in 1875 when a papal encyclical declared the whole ecclesiastical legislation of Prussia was invalid, and threatened to excommunicate any Catholic who obeyed. There was no violence, but the Catholics mobilized their support, set up numerous civic organizations, raised money to pay fines, and rallied behind their church and the Centre Party. The "Old Catholic Church", which rejected the First Vatican Council, attracted only a few thousand members. Bismarck, a devout pietistic Protestant, realized his Kulturkampf was backfiring when secular and socialist elements used the opportunity to attack all religion, and was forced to roll back the Anti-Catholic laws while attempting to placate Italy and France -the latter of which he feared might come to bring into order the 'Natural Borders of France' once again.
His policies in Germanization saw much more success, however. Initially against the Polish minority in the Prussian province of Posen, he pushed forward the same policy in the North German Settlements and Colonies. Taking a leaf out of the French's book, Bismarckian Germanization enforced laws that tried to eliminate the use of non-German languages in public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity. When these policies had a reverse effect, he would use extensive military suppression -at some point, forcing the Poles to attend school when they decided to begin home-schooling in response to the new policies. By 1880, this resulted in a full Deslavization of Prussia by incentivizing migration to Russia. Bismarck had the dual goals of Unifying the North German state for Germans as well as eventually funding and supporting a movement for Polish independence in Russia, something that later led to the Polish-Lithuanian Revolts of 1899 and the independence of Poland, Lithuania, and the Ukraine from the Russian State.
In the Colonies, these policies were followed much more seriously, and with harsher retaliations to any deviation from the law. Gold Coast and Kamerun in particular were ordered to focus specifically on assimilation, while his policies also incentivized migration to the colonies.
On the International scale, North Germany had a policy of Pragmatic Conservatism in response to the Liberal France and Britain, violent Reactionary South Germany, and Harshly Autocratic Russia. Viewing that Austria would eventually plan on a new war, he worked on building a coalition with Bulgaria, and the Netherlands to contain it in case of necessity, allowing Bulgaria to carve an Empire out of Balkans, while working on taking Bohemia out of South Germany's satellite. North German-French relations were neutral for most of his reign, with The French only competing in a friendly Rivalry during the Scramble for Africa but without a politics built on hatred. North German-British relations were less stellar, as Britain viewed the new German realm a threat to its international ambitions, while German-Russian relations worsened by the second.
The Fall of Bismarck and the Liberalization of the Realm
On 9 March 1888, Wilhelm I died shortly before his 91st birthday. Crown Prince Frederick was proclaimed Friedrich, Norddeutscher Kaiser on the same day. The new Kaiser reached Berlin at 11 p.m. on the night of 11 March; those who saw him were horrified by his "pitiful" appearance. The question now was how much longer the mortally ill emperor could be expected to live, and what, if anything, he could hope to achieve. In spite of his illness, Frederick did his best to fulfill his obligations as Emperor. The new Emperor had been in a Convalescence ever since a successful operation in 8 February 1888 had managed to cure his laryngeal cancer before it could bring him to death. The New Emperor, weakened and suffering through the healing period of his illness, overtook his duties immediately, and his first -and most important- early actions were to dismantle Bismarck's political domination of North Germany.
Bismarck, who had come to become more irritable, authoritarian and less focused in his old age, had long since tried to ensure Frederick wouldn't succeed into his new office, and his fears were proven to be correct, as The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer, the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister, on 8 June showed. While Friedrich preferred the British model of Constitutionalism to what Prussia had created following the Revolutions of 1848, he had realized that he could not do what Queen Victoria did. The North German Emperor could not be viewed as a Paternal figure, but had to be an authority. In the first few years of his reign, he employed (some believe "suffered through) Bismarck's administration, mostly in order to learn his duties as the Head of State, and to learn the method to Bismarck's madness.
Friedrich and Bismarck fell into conflict for various reasons, and in various levels. While the two were of the same mind that The old Chancellor had to guide him as he had his father, the Emperor was in no mood for his Chancellor's Reactionary and Hardliner policies. A key difference between Friedrich and Bismarck was their approach to handling domestic crises. In 1889, Upper Silesian Coal miners went on strike. While Bismarck had demanded military intervention to deal with the strike, Friedrich rejected this authoritarianism, claiming that he had no wish to shed unneccessary book. Instead of condoning this repression, he had the provincial government to negotiate with the miners' representatives, bringing an end to the strike with minimal violence, eventually implementing laws further favoring the laborers across the realm. The fractious relationship came to a close in March 1890. Bismarck and Friedrich quarreled, The Chancellor threatened to resign (as he would during quarrels with Wilhelm), and the Kaiser responded -in a way eerily similar to how the Chancellor had responded to the French in 1866- "Good, then resign.". The Chancellor did so only a few days later, and the Age of Reaction came to a close.
Reign of Fritz and the North African Crisis
Friedrich's early years after Bismarck were an era of political turmoil. With the long-reigning Chancellor (who had been the Minister-President of Prussia and thus the power in charge of Northern regions of German Confederation for the majority of the previous 28 years) now gone, the next few Chancellors each reigned for at most a few years. The year 1897 in particular, was known as the Year of three chancellors, with the fifth Chancellor reigning only for five weeks before he was removed from office. The political turmoil did not halt the North German Machine, and the system Bismarck had put in place continued to work where industry, urbanization, Germanization, and Welfare were concerned. Friedrich did however, with consent of the other North German monarchs, reform the Constitution to decrease the authoritarian tendencies of the North German State, bring liberal reforms and slowly pushing the Reactionary coalition out of office.
In an international scale, Fritz's reign (as he came to be informally known) slowly inched out of Realpolitik, becoming more interventionist and active in International affairs. He commenced the industrialization -especially in matter of Railroads- in Mittelafrika, eventually using it as a springboard to halt the British process. He baited the Boer and Afrikaan people of British South Africa to revolt in 1892, subsiding their military efforts, arming their insurgencies, and even at some point sending "voluntary expeditions", largely made of Boer and Dutch immigrants living in The southern parts of Mittelafrika, while officially taking a neutral stance. In Europe, he did the same with Poles regarding Russia, using the North German expat Polish people to help agitate the Polish people of Russian Poland to revolt against the Russian Empire. Under administration of Karl von Wustenberg, the Third Chancellor of North Germany and a supporter of the new, so-called Weltpolitik, North Germany supported an Italian expedition against Ottoman-held Wilayat of Tripoli in 1895, helping Italy carve a colony out of the decaying Ottoman realm.
Wustenberg's diplomatic concentrated on the lesser countries in Europe. In particular, Denmark -which had long since held a grudge against Prussia for the war it had suffered from in 1864. Pitting them against the resurgent power of The Swedish Kingdom, North Germany funded and supported a Danish-Swedish war in 1894 that ended with a minor -but relevant- Danish victory over their northern neighbors that allowed Denmark territories in the Scandinavian region itself. Wustenberg also made a pact of mutual aid with the minor -but still standing- Catalonia, as well as the Lesser Power of Netherlands, which had made itself a largely uncontested colonial Empire in Oceania. Allowing them to use the Bismarck Archipelago as a springboard, Wustenberg's North Germany helped The Dutch Empire successfully Challenge its fellow Great Power for their colonies in Southern Philippine Islands. At the same time, North Germany supported and helped The State of Japan, a newly reformed, fastly modernizing state in Japan, in their rise to a Great Power.
Wustenberg's reign came to an end in March 1897. The fourth Chancellor, Herman von der Saar, came into power in the First New Election of North Germany, where a coalition his loose, bickering coalition of Liberals and Conservatives to challenge Wustenberg's Nationalist Government. von der Saar was a much less interventionist Chancellor, but -and this was something Friedrich learned the hard way- Parliamentarian democracy had not the same effect in the historically dictatorial German Nation as it did in Britain. The weak, mostly illiberal -though, reforming- parliamentary politics resulted in the dissolution of the Liberal Socialist coalition in July of that same year. That same week, a new election was held where Reactionaries and Catholics formed the majority coalition and put 5th Chancellor Maximilian von Papen in charge. That coalition, due to the historical animosity between Bismarckian Reaction and Catholic peoples, fell apart immediately and in September, a new election was held. Thankfully, this was the very last election in that year.
Alfred von Wastrecht-Orenblau, a Nationalist politician, managed to form a coalition with Liberals in exchange for a promise for reform, and assumed power in 6 September 1897. His very first act as Chancellor was drafting a law that banned the use of paramilitary wings by North German Political Parties. With that, street battles -especially between Nationalists, Socialists, and Social Democrats, came to an end. Wastrect-Orenblau's reign was a mix between the Conservative Bismarckian politics and the Loud gunboat policy of Wustenberg. While North Germany continued to form a coalition across Europe -particularly working with France, which had seen their relationship with Britain tank due to the resulting crisis in the Fashoda Incident, where the British Empire put a stop to France's attempts in colonizing the Independent Egypt that was in the British Sphere of Influence. With a rise in Franco-British animosity and a decrease of the historical Franco-Prussian enmity, instead persuading France through politics to push that hatred into South Germany, which had under recent administration made a series of diplomatic blunders that had decreased its prestige to the modern world.
The North African Crisis, also called the Crisis of 1903, was the last of many territorial disputes over the by-now-mostly-colonized African continent. Initially an attempt by the Spanish Empire to connect its Moroccan territories by conquering the Kingdom of Morocco, the crisis began when France, claiming the small state to be under its sphere of Influence, demanded the Spanish Empire to demobilize its military units. Britain sided with Morocco, demanding in return that France cede Liberia (which had been colonized before the Conference of Berlin solidified land claimed, despite the British claim on its region) to Britain in turn. As France and Britain clashed, North Germany entered the affairs on France's side, demanding that Britain cede its colonies in the Gold Coast to the North German State.
The crisis was ongoing for four months in The Hague, where the Seven Great Powers (Britain, France, North Germany, Russia, South Germany, The United States, and Japan) bickered as Morocco stood by, fearing its very existence. By November 1903, France, North Germany, and Japan on one side and Britain, Russia, and South Germany on the other had failed to arrive to a settlement and were preparing for war. What put a stop to this madness was the American Argument that a war between the multicontinental Empires in the dispute would lead to an all-out "War to end all wars". The seven Powers agreed to refrain from fighting, however this message had been in conflict with individual messages by France, North Germany, Britain, and Spain. From 16 January to 19 January, multiple colonial conflicts occured. North Germany occupied Spanish Equatorial Guinea, France launched an invasion and blockade of British Guiana, while Britain attacked North German Gold Coast from their own Gold Coast colony. Due to the lack of fighting on the Mainland, the Diplomats in Hague -at the behest of the Dutch King- were convinced to go through the diplomatic mission and sue for a Status Quo peace before partial mobilization in mainland could put an end to the war.
This event, commonly called the First Moroccan Crisis, brought North Germany's greatest fears into reality. The North Germans needed a Navy, and they needed one that could overtake the mighty British Royal Navy.
North Germany controls most of Northern Central Europe, bordering Denmark in the North, The Polish Republic in the East, Bohemia and South Germany in the South, and Netherlands and France in the west. Additionally, it borders France and Britain in Gold Coast, France, Spain, and Britain in Kamerun, France, Egypt, Ethiopia, Portugal, and the Orange Free State in Mittelafrika, and the Dutch East Indies in Pacifica. North Germany is bordered by the North Sea in the northwest and the Baltic sea in the Northeast. The Core regions of North Germany have a total area of 436,708.89.
Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 m or 9,718 ft) in the south to the shores of the North and Baltic seas to the north. The forested uplands of western Germany and the lowlands of Northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube, and Elbe. The north of the country mostly lies within the North European Plain, a region consisting of many plains, and the northeast lies within the East European Plain, a region consisting of many plateaus. South of the plains are more mountainous regions, such as the Sudetes of Silesia. Significant resources include iron, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.
Most of North Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country has an oceanic climate in the west and a continental climate in the east. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream, making the North Sea's water warm. There is no consistent dry season. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).
The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.
Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row. Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two.
North Germany has an estimated population of 93 million people as of August 1908, 56 million of whom live in the European territories. With a populatoin of 54,248,398, it is Europe's second most populous country and the Ninth largest in the world. In addition, the population density in North Germany stands at 129.37 in her Core and 11.7 in total. The average Germans have an overall life expectancy of 75.1 years at birth (74.8 for Males and 74.4 for Females). A significant increase from the previous increase of 70 in 1896. Fertility rates are 2.4 Children per woman in the Core and up to 4 in the Colonial regions. North Germany has seen a decline in death rates while simultaneously experiencing a population trough due to the many policies set to increase the living standard of the lower and middle classmen. There are four sizable ethnic minority groups in the North German Realm: The Danes in Schleswig-Holstein, the Frisians and the Dutch living in Limburg, and the Sorbs living in Lusatia though the Government has had a policy of Germanization since the 1870s in order to integrate and assimilate these minorities. In the colonies a large number of Africans reside in regions under German control, though their birth rate is lower and their quality of life considerably lower than their German counterparts, a policy that the current Wastrecht-Orenblau government plans to correct in due time. A significant population of Romanis, Jews and Sintis also live in North Germany. North Germany is the third most popular target for immigration, particularly with the Boers and Afrikaans in the Southern parts of Mittelafrika, as well as Bulgarians, Dutch, and Danish immigrants into the Core. North Germany has treaties of mutual migration with many neighboring countries, as well as many in the rest of the world.
German is the nation's official and predominant spoken language. Over 96 percent of the country speaks a standardized form of German called Standard German or numerous other regional German dialects as their first language. Standard German was developed in the early modern period based on a combination of Central German and Upper German varieties. German is a West Germanic language which is classified with and shares a relation with languages such as Low German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, and English. To a lesser extent, it is also related to North Germanic languages. German words mostly originated from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family although, the language also contains a significant minority of words from languages such as Latin and Greek. German also borrows a small amount of words from languages such as French and English. German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighboring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian. The varieties of German are conventionally grouped into Upper German, Central German and Low German; Upper and Central German form the High German subgroup. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups such as Low German or Plautdietsch are alternatively referred to as "languages" and "dialects". German is the most widely spoken first language in Europe, with around 69 million native speakers inside Germany. Germans are typically multilingual: 58% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 14% in at least two. Recognized native minority languages in Germany includes Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian.
Since its Establishment, North Germany has officially been a secular nation, guaranteeing freedom of religion within its border. The Constitution puts the Church beneath the state, allowing heavy-handed intervention of the Secular government and Intelligentsia into the affairs of the Church. Despite its secular identity, it has a very religious population -though that is slowly seeing a decline- and many called for an implementation of Christianity (Specifically, United Prussian) as the state religion, though its appeals aren't put into serious consideration by the Government.
The German States have, throughout history, been dominated by various forms of Protestantism and Catholicism, though most Catholics now reside in Southern Germany. There's a significant minority of Jews in North Germany. Because of the historical political and religious development in the region, orth Germany's Christian denominations are spread out throughout specific regions. Traditionally, Protestants are concentrated in the northern, central, and eastern region of the country while Catholics dominated the south and west of North Germany. Within the major denominations, Protestantism and the Evangelical Churches such as Lutherans and Reforms, are about twice the size of the Catholics, though there's a small portion of the remaining demography, consisting of Jews and other minorities. According to a census in 1900, Protestants compromised 63%, while Roman Catholics only 30%, while Jews and other religions made up of 4% of the population. About 3% of the population has declared itself "irreligious", a trend that is seeing a rise in the result of late 19th century European Scientific Realism.
Formed as a state for Germans, North Germany is racially homogenous in its Core European territories. Ethnic Germans comprise around 94% of the State's population. It needs to be mentioned that the term "German" also applies to other Ethnic groups such as Sorbs, Danes, Dutch, and Frisians. Jews make up nearly 1% of the state's demographics. There's a small minority of other European peoples (mostly from Bulgaria, Catalonia, and France). The German lands have historically been inhabited by German peoples for centuries where they faced occupation from foreign forces and settled throughout the lands for many years. Although immigration and interracial mixings have shifted the demographics of the people in Germany throughout the years. There are few ethnic minorities in Germany since its foundation.
Within its Oversees dominions, the Demographics are not quite as well-balanced. While Gold Coast, Pacifica, and Kamerun host a mostly German population (Due to various events resulting in the decimation of native populations), about 45% of Mittelafrika's population is African in origin, made of multiple ethnicities that are banded so. It is estimated that the African population will cease to become a majority by 1916, and eventually become a minority due to extensive social programs that concentrate on decreasing birth rate among the African peoples.
North Germany is now comprised of a number of ethnic groups. These are as followed:
Germans: The German People make about 75 million of the total population of North Germany, with 54 million of them living in Germany proper. Germans are defined as all people native to The Germanic regions of Europe that share a Germanic Culture and speak in a Germanic Language, a list that includes Dutch, Dane, Frisian, Boer, Afrikaaner, and Sorb peoples as well.
Ashkenazi Jews: A prevalent Jewish diaspora population that inhabits Germany. It emerged as a distinct ethnic group within the Jewish community in the time of the Holy Roman Empire. It speaks a unique language called Yiddish and its numbers are estimated to be around nine hundred thousand.
Romani: A travelling ethnic group originating from the northern Indian subcontinent. The Gypsies have since then immigrated to Europe and particularly in Germany. Their numbers are around eighty thousand and have frequently persecution in German society.
African: A Catch-all term to describe all people living in Subsaharan Africa, the African people live almost exclusively only in the Oversees dominions of the Empire, with their population in the Core regions in the thousands at best. They were historically considered 'Second-class Citizens' by the Empire, especially in the 1880s. The Government's policy regarding the native people of the African dominions has changed from a stage of harsh repression to civil coexistence. The African people number in tens of millions, technically forming the second largest Ethnic demography in Germany.
North Germany is a federation of states ruled by a Limited Constitutional Monarchy. The North German political System, laid out by the North German Constitution of 1867, has been mostly the same though its constitution was amended again in 1891.
The Emperor (Kaiser), currently Friedrich, is the Head of State. A hereditary position, the Kaiser is also the King of Prussia, the Stadthalter of Berlin, and also the President of the Confederation. The Imperial crown is tied to that of the King of Prussia. The Kaiser has the power to declare war, represent the Realm abroad, conclude treaties and alliance and accredit and receive ambassadors. The Kaiser can also propose Federal laws and appoint Federal Offices.
The Chancellor (Reichskanzler), currently Alfred von Wastrecht-Orenblau, is the de jure Head of Government. The office of Chancellor is appointed by the Kaiser. He has executive power over the Bundesrat and can delegate the power to represent him to any of its members. Federal Laws require the approval of the Chancellor.
The North German Parliament is made of two chambers: The Bundesrat and the Reichstag.
The Bundesrat, is made up of representatives from each state. Each state is allocated a specified number of representatives based on its population. The number of representatives for each state, 115 in total, is listed below:
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Waldeck and Pyrmont
The Three Free and Hanseatic Cities
The Reichstag, the lower chamber of the North German Parliament are elected through universal suffrage (which is, in practice, limited to males): each member represents a district (Kreise) by a majority vote. Since 1890, the Reichstag has 335 members.
North Germany has a civil law system. The constitution was amended in 1873 to make civil law the responsibility of the Empire. The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the civil code, which began development in 1881, came into effect on 1 January 1900. The Reichsgericht (Realm'sCourt) is the Nation's Supreme Court.
The Reichsstrafgesetzbuch is the penal code of North Germany.
The North German Realm is made of twenty-six Federal and six Oversees states. It is made of five Kingdoms, three Grand Duchies, nine Duchies, three Principalities, four City-states, A Dominion, two colonies, two Protectorates, and one Settlement. The full list to the North German States can be found here.
The North German Realm, a Great Power in its own right, has an extensive sphere of influence around the globe. Within Europe, The Netherlands, Bulgaria, Denmark, Riga, and Catalonia; and from Africa the Orange Free State, are directly in the Empire's sphere of influence, and it shares alliances and treaties of mutual defense and trade with each of them.
In addition to its Empire, North Germany also has informal treaties with Portugal, Italy, the Kingdom of Levant, and Morocco as well. Among the Great Powers, North Germany enjoys a cordial relationship with France, The US, and the Japanese Empire.
The Empire however is not viewed well by her rivals. The British Empire and her sphere of influence (Egypt, Ethiopia, Oman, Siam, Spanish Empire), the Russian Empire, South Germany and its own Sphere of influence (Bohemia, Hungary, Romania), and China hold very hostile relations with the Empire and her allies.
An Archive of "Die Zeit", a Newspaper with articles on fellow countries as well as that of North Germany can be found here: https://imgur.com/a/yiUGsfG
The North German Military (Norddeutsches Reichswehr) is divided into the Reichsheer (Army) and Reichsmarine (Navy), with a recently created and as-of-yet small Reichsluftwaffe (Air Force) in the process of rebuilding. In addition to the 3 millions strong Standing Military, every able-bodied man is conscripted to undergo two years of compulsory training at the age of 18, making another 10 million of reserve forces possible. The North German military-industrial complex, borne out of the Prussian tradition of being "An Army with a State", has made the prevalence of a military very obvious, as the nation's very industry and society functions around it.
The Reichsheer is made mostly of Infantry and Cavalry, armed with a variety of small arms, as well as heavy Artillery for support. It is the largest branch of the North German Military. The Reichsmarine is relatively smaller, consisting of Five Naval Groups each hosting one Battle fleet, three Attack Fleets, and one Escort Fleet; and Eight Colonial Naval Groups each holding two Colonial Fleets, two Attack Fleets, and one Escort fleet. The German Navy is in process of designing a Capital Warship capable of landing and launching aircraft, but thus far that has not given fruit. The Reichsluftwaffe, the newest and smallest branch of the military, is made mostly of experimental aircraft including "bombers" and "fighters", though doctrine is quickly changing over whether or not an Air Force is a good project to overtake for a military at this stage.
The Emperor is the commander-in-chief. The General Staff, led by the Chief of the General Staaf, is the main governing body of the German Armed Forces.
The North German military has a large number of conscripts from its Colonies, and a total number of 12 brigades of Foreign Volunteers, and has bases in every nation that is in its Sphere of Influence or is in an alliance with her.
The North German Economy is a highly industrialized, highly mobile civilian economy. It is the most powerful in Europe and second most powerful in the World (Only outmatched by the American Economy). Its main rivals from an economic point of view are France (cordial neutral), America (friendly neutral), and British (hostile) Economies. Throughout its existence, it has only experienced economic growth and modernization led by heavy industry. In 1868, it had a largely rural population of 40 million, while by 1904 this has increased to a predominantly urban population of 55 million.
North Germany has a highly industrialized economy. Entire areas (such as Ruhr) are dedicated to the industry, which is dominated by Krupp, though smaller financial powers do exist. The North German textile and metal industries had by 1870 surpassed those of Britain in organisation and technical efficiency and superseded British manufacturers in the domestic market. North Germany became the dominant economic power on the continent and was the second largest exporting nation after Britain.
Technological progress during North German industrialisation occurred in four waves: the railway wave (1877–1886), the dye wave (1887–1896), the chemical wave (1897–1902), and the recently-started wave of electrical engineering (1903–1918).Since North Germany industrialised later than Britain, it was able to model its factories after those of Britain, thus making more efficient use of its capital and avoiding legacy methods in its leap to the envelope of technology. Germany invested more heavily than the British in research, especially in chemistry, motors and electricity. Germany's dominance in physics and chemistry was such that one-third of all Nobel Prizes went to German inventors and researchers.
The German cartel system (known as Konzerne), being significantly concentrated, was able to make more efficient use of capital. Germany was not weighted down with an expensive worldwide empire that needed defense.
By 1900, the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. The three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst produced several hundred different dyes, along with the five smaller firms. These eight firms produced almost 90% of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80% of their production abroad. The three major firms had also integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials and they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals, photographic film, agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals. Top-level decision-making was in the hands of professional salaried managers; leading Chandler to call the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises". There were many spinoffs from research—such as the pharmaceutical industry, which emerged from chemical research.
North Germany has a large economic base. Its Mainland is the most industrialized area, while the resources required for the factory input are acquired either by trade, or mining, mostly from the Colonies though mines do exist in The North German Core as well. The Colonies are also a source of agricultural economy, both for export, public use, and stockpile. Its Labor Force is the fifth most largest (after The British, French, American, and Chinese labor forces), while its trading power, expanded by its numerous naval bases in multiple continents, has only extended since the acquisition of Danish Ghana and West Indies in 1864.
Lacking a technological base at first, the Germans imported their engineering and hardware from Britain, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways. In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by 1850, Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry. However, the creation of the North German Federation stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth. Unlike the situation in France, the goal was support of industrialisation, and so heavy lines crisscrossed the Ruhr and other industrial districts, and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. By 1880, North Germany had 9,400 locomotives pulling 43,000 passengers and 30,000 tons of freight, and forged ahead of France. The total length of North German railroad tracks expanded from 21,000 kilometers in 1871 to 63,000 kilometres by 1907, establishing the largest rail network in the world after the United States, and effectively surpassing the 32,000 kilometers of rail that connected Britain in the same year.
A highly concentrated, mostly privately funded project to do something of the same in the Colonies was also performed, where in Mittelafrika a line connected Schwarze-Punkt (Pointe Noire) to Freienhaus (Dar-as-salaan) and Mombassa to Luderitz. These railroads aided in the moving of troops as well as mined resources and agricultural goods from mines and processing units to the Ports where the North German Navy and its Merchant Fleet could carry them home.