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Dydw i ddim yn mwynhau'r gwiberod du yn y swyddfa
This history overview of Nhoor is still being constructed. Existing information my still be altered and new information may be added.
The Pact of the Five Sisters (ca. 200 CE)
The people now known as Nhoor were a semi-nomadic people indigenous to large parts of Raedlon but generally dominated by other powers. The Nhoor didn’t have a name of their own but had various names (most of them not very flattering) depending on where they lived. Nhoor tended to work as servants or even slaves for other peoples, but there were also free Nhoor who in many parts of Raedlon had the reputation of being cattle thieves, which may have been only partly true but resulted in other peoples generally ‘taking back’ sheep and other livestock that were ‘stolen’ from them.
The presence of Nhoor in most parts of Raedlon disappeared between 900 and 1200 CE. Travellers introduced hinduism in the Second Kinaera Kingdom (a small realm around the city of Cinharda that used to be part of Dhehari) and many Nhoor felt drawn to this new religion, which spread among them rapidly. Many Nhoor started to move to the west, where the religion quickly became dominant and where the Nhoor quickly started to outnumber the indigenous peoples. In 1102 the king of the Second Kinaera Kingdom, who still believed in (some form of) the Aasharé religion and had issued a decree to ban hinduism, was toppled by hinduist forces and replaced by the ethnic Nhoor dynasty of Ocurhda.
Over two and a half centuries the Second Kinaera Kingdom expanded to include much of the northern part of the western peninsula. From 1324 to 1368 Narhato̦ would be the last Queen of Kinaera; as she had no surviving children but did have three important rivals who she feared would rip the country apart upon her death, she forged the Act of Transferral, which divided the kingdom in three parts, so called Archduchies (this is an approximate translation to English), which were named Orleqh, Ta̦rleqh and Camhɵrlanh. Although Ta̦rleqh and Camhɵrlanh were united in peronal union in 1563, causing a small disturbance in the balance of power, the Act of Transferral ensured a period of relative peace until the arrival of the explorer Numav in 1587.
In 1580 Qhod-Uba claimed and obtained the Archducal title of Ta̦rleqh. He was only a distant relative of the previous Archduke and his succession to the throne was therefore controversial. Qhod-Uba started a campaign to rid his country from any serious opponents, with the Siege of Caybir of 1583-1584 being the most notable event in this undertaking: during 441 days the town of Caybir was besieged by the Archduke's troops to force Qhardo of the house of Cɵrh-Cellichen, his second cousin once removed, into submission. Qhardo managed to escape the town however and she fled to the Archduchy of Orleqh. She tried to return in 1586 but her army was defeated and she returned to Orleqh, where she married into the local Archducal house. Qhod-Uba in the meantime secured his position and kept his potential heirs divided, confused, and on a short leash.
In 1587 the explorer Numav of the Hangate of Tachil (see: Razzgriz), in the final years of his Western Expedition, lands in the city of Qhōmh (which was then the capital and Archducal residence of Ta̦rleqh) where the strangers are received in a friendly manner, but due to a misunderstanding, Archduke Qhod-Uba is mistaken for a thief and killed by the newly arrived: after attending a banquet on Numav's flag ship, during which Numav was named Lord of the Seas and jokingly named 'Heir of Ta̦rleqh' ("as you'd make a better ruler than those good-for-nothing relatives of mine") the disappearance of a ceremonial mask is discovered. During the search party that ensues, the Archduke is found standing near the location where the mask is lying but due to the night and the presence of fog he isn't recognised as the Archduke and shot.
Things get out of hand quickly and before long Numav and his men have taken control not only of the city but also – making use of the sudden power vacuum that they created themselves – the entire Archduchy of Ta̦rleqh. They send a message to the empire, reinforcements are sent, including government official Shukura Alahmoot to assume formal control of the empire’s new remote outpost Ta̦rleqh as Barhèn.
Attempts to undo this chain of events lead to nothing: several groups tried to convince Qhardo of Cɵrh-Cellichen to come back and revive her claim to the throne of Ta̦rleqh but being in bad health, she refused. The legality of the deceased Archduke's (joke) proclamation during the banquet that Numav was his successor was found 'dubious' but based on the facts that there had been witnesses during the event, that there were precedents of oral appointments of heirs, that the heir was part of Ta̦rleqh nobility (as Numav had been appointed Lord of the Seas mere hours before), and that it hadn't been Numav himself who had killed Qhod-Uba, Ta̦rleqh's leading legal advisors were forced to agree that Numav's accession to the throne of Ta̦rleqh had been according to the rules.
At first, a new Barhèn is sent to Ta̦rleqh every couple of years, but K'avene Yilema convinces the empire’s central command to keep him appointed a bit longer in order to deal with neighbouring lands that started to consider the Khas-Kirati influence in the region as a thread. The Hangate of Tachil was replaced by the Empire of Iskarian Isles in 1597. In order to gain the trust of both the locals and the neighbours, Barhèn Yilema reinstates the Archducal title in 1608 (Numav had been titular Archduke since 1587 although he left Ta̦rleqh in the same year; in a letter he renounces the title and names Yilema as his heir) and assumes the local name I̦ldurud VI. He founds the Archducal dynasty of Cenharruc (named after a now obsolete word for larch, a common tree in Nhoor), which later became the royal family of Nhoor that would rule until 2017 (or 1978, rather). Over time, the office of Barhèn becomes of secundary importance and the word barhen was gradually introduced in the Nhoor language as the word for ambassador.
Ta̦rleqh and Camhɵrlanh had been ruled by the Archdukes of Ta̦rleqh since 1563, when Archduke I̦ldurud V of Ta̦rleqh inherited Camhɵrlanh from his aunt, the last ruling Archduchess of that realm, who had died without alternative heirs. Although in practice both nations had been growing closer to each other, Camhɵrlanh was still de jure independent and therefore not a part of the Empire of the Iskarian Isles. The growing influence of Ta̦rleqh and by extension the Empire of which it was part, worried the rulers of Orleqh, the Archduchy in the north. Archduke Lɵcmws III, who ascended the throne of Orleqh in 1630 and who was a descendant of Qhardo of Cɵrh-Cellichen, a former claimant to the Archducal throne of Ta̦rleqh, organised a rather large army and launched an attack on Ta̦rleqh in 1633. Lɵcmws III hoped to defeat the enemy before reinforcements from the rest of the Empire would arrive. Despite the size of his army, he failed however and the war would stretch out until 1639 and become known as the Six Year War. Lɵcmws III was defeated and he and several members of his family were executed in a gruesome way on the main market square of O̦qwrruc, the capital of Orleqh. During the war the smaller nations of Vaqtwch, Sola, and Tenda were also annexed by Ta̦rleqh.
While Archduke Osvīd I of Ta̦rleqh (1628-1640) just planned to assume the Archducal rule of Orleqh in personal union while keeping it mostly independent, his successor Archduke Osvīd II (1640 - 1644) was convinced by his imperial advisors to formally annex Orleqh and also Camhɵrlanh. The legal aspects of such a union were investigated and in 1644 the three countries were formally united into the Dominion of Nhoor, an event still celebrated on 23 September as the Unification. The remaining smaller nations in the northern part of the western peninsula were annexed by Nhoor under King Armhad I within 50 years after the Unification: Sīron-Onharh (1650), U̦mhach (1655), Pāla (1659), Īnōsy (1683), and Chur (1692-1693).
The southern part of the western peninsula in the meantime had remained largely underdeveloped: it was inhabited by far fewer people than the north and it had fewer natural resources. In addition, the frequent occurrence of katabatic winds and other storms coming from the Mesder Sea made the region less hospitable than the north and less approachable by sea, as the numerous wooden shipwrecks in the waters around the southern coast confirm. Nevertheless, King Ily-Nheva decided in 1711 that the southern lands would be of strategic value and launched a campaign to conquer them. At first, he proceeded without much problems and most indigenous inhabitants cooperated or were subdued without much effort, but his armies encountered unexpected resistance near the settlement of Stalda (now in the province of Heyna). The First Battle of Stalda ensued, which was lost by the King's troops. An immediate regrouping and second battle would have brought the desired victory, but a heavy storm fell down on the area, affecting both sides and killing the King. The Council of Nobles (see below) then ordered retreat and a coast-to-coast border was established through Stalda.
In the early 18th century, Nhoor nobility had steadily gained influence during a couple of weaker kings who started their reigns as minors under regency of prominent nobles and were then kept on a short leash. This started in 1712 when King Ily-Nheva died and left the throne to his 7 year old son King Umhīla. The Council of Nobles, headed by the new King's uncle by marriage Zajela, the Duke of Tojy, managed to take control of the country at the expense of the non-noble citizenry and the peasantry (the latter of which had never been in a favored position to begin with). Taxes were imposed to fund the noble's expensive lifestyle; the economy started to feel the effects after a few years as foreign traders began avoiding doing business with Nhoor.
By the 1720s people had grown increasingly disgruntled with the harsh rule to which they were subjected but initial protests had no effect. In the years that followed, the unrest grew however until it culminated into an insurrection, during which an angry mob occupied the city centre of Sārruc as of May 1723. The government house was invaded and ransacked, but due to the absence at the time of any person of influence, there was only a lot of damage. The troops of the Council of Nobles advanced on the protesters and had the lot arrested and half of them executed for high treason. King Umhīla, who became of age in 1722, was however shocked by the events and had his uncle stripped of his title and privileges, and confined to his quarters for the rest of his life.
King Umhīla tried to undo some of the economic damage that the Council of Nobles had done but the arrest of the (now former) Duke of Tojy had created enmity between the King and the Council, and during the rest of his adult life, King Umhīla's policies were questioned, discredited, opposed, and even thwarted by the Council. King Umhīla died in 1745 at age 41 and left the throne to his oldest son King I̦ldurud who was only 17. The Council of Nobles saw their opportunity to take the lead in governing the country once more.
After king I̦ldurud’s death in 1766 at age 38 (there were rumours that the Council had had him murdered but historians have never found conclusive evidence for this theory), the nobility proclaimed his 15 year old son Armhad II king, but I̦ldurud’s younger brother Urhod succesfully claimed his nephew’s guardianship and was appointed regent on behalf of him. Regency alone seemed however inefficient to Urhod and a year later he took the kingship for himself. Tensions between the new King and the nobility all but exploded and the country succumbed into a short civil war, which was eventually lost by Urhod, who died on the battlefield near Qhōmh in 1770. His nephew Armhad II was subsequently reinstated as King of Nhoor, but he was a mere puppet figure as the country was now effectively ruled by the Council of Nobles.
Urhod II and the Feast of Amercement
When Armhad II dies in 1789, his oldest surviving 18 year old son is proclaimed king Urhod II. The young king has a rowdy but cunning character and as the Council of Nobles find it hard to work with him, they confine him to the royal castle and just ignore him. In 1792 the king sends a formal invitation to all the nobles to attend a royal banquet as some sort of peace offering and a formal request to be included in state matters again.
The banquet famously took place on the 23rd of June of that year. All the most important members of the Council of Nobles attended the feast and their intention was to refuse the king’s request, which they did while arrogantly mocking their host. The king, being bored and having enough of the nobility’s arrogance, had had the food served to his guests poisoned and their screams of agony could be heard throughout the night – according to historical accounts, which may or may not have been largely exaggerated. The far majority of nobles died as a result of what became known as the Feast of Amercement, and king Urhod II then organised a hunt on the remaining members of the Nhoor nobility and had them executed.
Urhod II then took direct charge of his country's government. Under his rule, the country bloomed industrially, culturally, and scientifically, although the nation still remained linked to the Iskarian Isles. The southernmost part of the peninsula, which still wasn't formally part of Nhoor, had formed some sort of weak federation of clans after 1712, which continued resistance against annexation by Nhoor. They had however become more and more dependent on Nhoor through the years and by the start of the 19th century, their indigenous Kinaeran language had all but been replaced by Nhoor. In 1806, King Urhod II declared that the federation's defence matters would henceforth fall under the responsibility of Nhoor, and two years later, representatives of the southern clans signed the transfer of political responsibility to Nhoor as well, which meant that Nhoor was now in possession of the entire peninsula.
Nhoor and the Almoreans
King Urhod II’s death in 1836 meant the end of a period of strength and stability. His son, the new king Urhod III, was by far not as accomplished a strategist as his father used to be, according to moderate, friendly reports from that time. Less flattering reports called him an outright idiot. Urhod III’s incompetence had become painfully apparent already in the first year of his reign and gradually his entourage was filled by opportunists and criminals who tried to take advantage of the King’s naivity. Some of the mayors and provincial governors that were appointed by the king were crooks that all but robbed their territories without the danger of facing legal consequences.
During the King’s birthday party in April 1837 that was attended by important people from Nhoor and abroad, the ambassador of Almorea managed to agree with the King on a dubious contract that would give Almorea certain trading advantages towards other countries doing business with Nhoor as well as the right to establish strategic trading posts along the westcoast of Nhoor, close to the shipping routes of the Mesder Sea. The contract was rather vague but the expansionist Almorean government of president Finn Birse of that time interpreted as much in their favour as possible and without losing any time, several strongholds in or near the harbour towns of Caruqhur, Ovany, Sondé, and Volerh were created, whereas the island of Īnōsy was occupied in its entirety. Protests and resistance by the local governments and population were swiftly dealt with.
The Confederation of the Iskarian Isles to which Nhoor belonged and which had replaced the Empire of the Iskarian Isles in 1789, was however alarmed by the events and sent legal councillors to Nhoor to find a way to declare circumvent the contract. The King, besieged by confederal lawyers as well as Nhoor protesting against the Almorean presence in the west, finally felt that he might have made a mistake ahd wanted to renege on the contract. He sent the army to the westcoast in order to force the Almoreans out, but the now unwanted visitors wouldn’t have any of that and bombarded the town of Cinharda to indicate their intention to stay. A subsequent sea battle between Nhoor and Almorea was almost won by Nhoor, but the weather turned bad due to which the Almoreans got the upper hand and managed to sink Nhoor’s flag ship.
The confederal lawyers in the meantime argued that the King of Nhoor as a subject to the Confederation had no legal right to grant any foreign power the trading rights that the Almoreans received, so they declared the contract null and void. This was not accepted by the Almoreans. (escalation of the conflict as part of the 1st Central Argus War that should have taken place around that time?)
Between 1837 and 1842 the Almorean strongholds were further developed. Due to Almorean president Finn Birse's death in 1842 the Almorean influence in the occupied areas waned however, and apart from the town of Caruqhur and the island of Īnōsy, most of them were abandoned in the years that followed. King Urhod III didn’t feel like going to the ordeal again however and remained indecisive as to whether to reclaim the territories or not, so the Almoreans were able to keep the territories they still had, whereas the rest fell in some kind of power vacuum for a while. A popular movement that protested against the King’s eratic policies and which saw the establishment of Nhoor’s first parliament and a First Minister subject to the parliament’s approval, brought some stability in the country’s government and most ‘empty’ territories were formally reclaimed by Nhoor in 1850. In 1860, Urhod III’s successor Queen Umhīlī negotiated a new deal with Almorea that saw the latter renting Caruqhur and Īnōsy from Nhoor for a period of 123 years.
The distant wars
Although Nhoor had in practice been acting as an independent nation, its King had always also been Barhèn in several incarnations of the Tachil Empire; the Confederation of the Iskarian Isles (Konðætalíszkárí), which existed between 1825 and 1969, made it increasingly clear that it considered Nhoor as part of it from 1900 onwards. Due to Nhoor’s distance to the rest of the Empire/the Confederation, there had been few occassions in which Nhoor had been treated as as a province of it or in which its King had to follow orders from the capital. This changed in the early 20th century, when Nhoor was required to assist in the Great Gael War. Thousands of Nhoor men were drafted and sent to fight on the other end of the Western Isles. Few of them returned, which caused some disgruntlement among those who remained. Nhoor was also required to send financial and material aid, due to which the country started to experience some vulnerability towards its closer neighbours.
The period after the war (or, as it turned out later: between the wars) was characterised by shortage as the economy of Nhoor had suffered quite a blow because of the war. A socialist-like movement popped up against the establishment that not only wanted to get rid of Nhoor’s connection with the Empire but to replace the entire government system of Nhoor: the Severance Party. General elections had existed in Nhoor since 1897 and the parliament had been filled with mostly conservative members since the beginning, but the general election of 1923 saw a majority of parliament seats being filled by members of this Severance Party. The government, headed by King Urhod IV, was willing to implement a few of the SP’s proposals for change, but refused to alter the form of government that was in place or to end the relationship with the Oseamar Empire. A stalemate followed that would last for several years: policies that had been in place continued as usual, but no new policies were made.
In 1930 King Urhod IV ordered the army to vacate parliament, forbade the Severance Party, and called for new elections in what became known as the Night of the Knot. Heavy protests by members and supporters of the SP followed and Sārruc became essentially a battle zone. A few dozen people died during clashes between protesters and the police. The King issued a statement explaining his actions, calling the SP’s lack of flexibility ‘against the best interests of Nhoor and its people’, and stated that the SP would be allowed to run in elections again if they adapted their policy so that it would serve the Greater Good of the entire country and all its people. Allthough the protests weren’t as heavy afterwards as initially, the situation in the capital remained tense throughout the ‘30s.
In 1939, Nhoor was invaded by the Khas Kirati Empire (present day Athara Magarat). King Urhod IV died in battle, and the rest of the Royal Family, including the new King Armhad IV, and the legitimate Confederation-backed government left the country and went in exile in the Alteran Republics. The Khas Kirate Empire did however not occupy Nhoor entirely: a puppet regime was installed in the southern town of Stalda as the New State of Stalda, which was headed by Colonel Phwzen Heluva and controlled roughly everything from western Heyna to the south.
A resistance movement was quickly formed, largely by leading figures of the Severance Party, which made the occupation a difficult and expensive endeavour, both for the Khas Kirati Empire and the Stalda Regime. On 15 October 1943 it already toppled the Stalda regime and by 1944 it controlled large parts of the formally occupied territory as well. The Confederation then liberated the cities of Nhoor and the Confederation-backed government retook control of Nhoor, accepting the capitulation of the Khas Kirati Empire on 6 December 1944.
Path towards independence
The political situation in Nhoor after the occupation became tense. The Severance Party and other former leaders of the resistance movement demanded Nhoor's independence from the Confederation, which they resented for not being able to prevent the Khas Kirati invasion and occupation, and to have come to the rescue only when the largest part of the country had already been retaken by the resistance. The government refused however to make any concessions and declared the state of emergency in Nhoor, which they took as an excuse to arrest a large part of the leadership of the SP and other former resistance leaders. The King, in his capacity as Barhèn, was forced to comply. In 1955, the Severance Party issued a proclamation calling the Confederation an 'enemy of Nhoor' and announcing military action to get them out of the country.
The first violent attack happened on 23 May 1956, when the King’s chief of security K’aen Assi (who despite his seemingly low title was in practice the mightiest non-military Iskarian representative in Nhoor) was killed by a car bomb that also blew out all the windows of Nhoor’s parliament building. Several people were arrested, but the masterminds of the SP remained at large so the attacks continued.
Despite the chaos that these caused, the SP turned into some kind of mysterious hero among the Nhoor and opposition against the Iskarians grew steadily. The King publicly expressed his discontentment with this situation as ‘terrorists and murderers shouldn’t be called heroes’, but he entered in discussion with the Confederation and it was agreed that a referendum could be held on the question whether or not Nhoor should remain a formal part of the Confederation or become a fully independent nation.
The referendum was held on the 1st of July 1967 and around 72% of the voters wanted Nhoor to become independent. After some preparation, independence became effective on the 1st of January 1969. King Armhad IV didn’t live to experience it: he died in November 1967 and was succeeded by his grandson Urhod V who became the first king of a fully independent Nhoor.
Start-up problems and a new constitution
Nhoor's newly independent status didn't gave it the political stability it had awaited. Executive power still lied with the King, but a series of unexpected tragies had all but decimated the country's royal family by the time Nhoor's independence had been secured. King Armhad IV's second son and heir presumtive Prince Acāver had died in 1964, just days before his older brother Prince Armhad, who used to be the Crown Prince but was stripped of this title when a severe drug addiction had made his prospective ability to rule 'improbable'. Prince Acāver's son was therefore crowned King Urhod V upon the death of his grandfather in November 1967.
Urhod V was 28 when he ascended the throne and turned out to be very interested in politics but rather incapable regarding military and foreign strategies. His inflamable character contributed to a number of explosive situations both in his personal life (his wife Queen Kadra had at least three miscarriages and their only son who survived infancy, prince Acāver, only lived to age 5) and in his attempts to rule the country (war is said to have been declared to various foreign powers on numerous occasions, and only thanks to some strong and persuasive ministers the King was convinced not to persue further action in these matters). On top of this, the country was hit by a series of violent protests in 1970 and 1971 when a series of mine incidents forced the government to discontinue most of the country's mining activities, due to which a large number of miners lost their jobs.
King Urhod V hit his head however whilst swimming in his private pool in 1971 and drowned, and as he had no surviving children he was succeeded by his younger cousin the heir presumptive Prince Armhad, who was by then the last remaining member of the House of Cenharruc. The new King, Armhad V, was 24 years old and wholly unprepared to assume royal duties and had been diagnosed with a mental affliction a few years earlier. For this reason, he left the responsibility of ruling the country to his cabinet ministers, who started to prepare a change of the constitution that would take away most executive powers from the King.
The new constitution followed the ideas of Trias Politica but to a radical extent as propagated by Nhoor political philosopher Rhoja̦d Badorgeqh (1793 - 1860) who argued that the Legislative power is the only one able to truly represent the people of their nation and that the independence of the Executive and Judiciary branches can only be guaranteed when their composition isn't determined by the same institution that determines the composition of the Legislative (i.e. the people), so not only should the three powers as entities be completely separate from each other, also the ways their respective members are chosen should be completely separate from each other. This philosophy resulted in the constitution that has been in force since 1978 with a layer of legislative powers of which the people elect the municipal level, the members of the municipal parliaments elect the provincial parliaments, and the members of the provincial parliaments elect the members of the national parliament, while the Executive and the Judiciary are completely self-regulating bodies.
The 60s and 70s were marked by an increasing amount of tolerance throughout society of things that were previously considered taboo. Habits, fashion, and artistic expression as well as the discussion of sexuality had changed rapidly within a decade, partially thanks to the introduction of the television in most households in Nhoor. Not everyone considered this development a good one and in 1974 the Puritan Society of Nhoor (Anhost pw Cwstorhanana li Nhōrili, ACNh) published their pseudo-religious manifesto, which combined some random old religious laws to propose a new and pure way of life. From that moment on, members of this cult would step forward to people whom they considered sinners to give them a harsh talk and/or to publically shame them. The ACNh quickly grew into a national movement of people who couldn't cope with the societal and moral developments, and in 1977 they presented themselves as a political party to participate in the first elections under the new constitution that would be formally adopted by this elected parliament a year later. Although they won almost a quarter of the seats, differences of opinion within the movement and the party caused a series of schismas, and by 1981 the remains of the party suffered a huge election loss and in 1985 they didn't participate anymore. Various remaining factions of the movement are still active in Nhoor and can be found protesting outside e.g. abortion clinics, too lewd and frivolous bars and clubs, as well as cinemas showing films that are considered too experimental.
In 1983 Īnōsy was formally returned to Nhoor after a 123 year lease by Almorea. Īnōsy was added as the country's fifteenth province and this division remained unchanged until 2021, when the two Zascheïd provinces were added.
Following the full independence of Nhoor, the country slowly started looking around for new international partnerships, both economically and diplomatically. In 1996 the country joined the Cooperative Union (CU) as a full member and the Four Passages Free Commerce and Travel Agreement (FCTA) as an associate member. In more recent times, Nhoor investigated possibilities to participate in a plan by Polar svalbard to found an economic community for nations on the subcontinent of Raedlon, a plan which Almorea and Nhoor further developed in early 2020 and lead to the foundation of the Raedlon Organization of States by Almorea, Solaryia, and Nhoor in July of that year.
Following King Armhad V's confinement to a mental institution in 1978, the government also started looking for a successor, as the King had no children or other close relatives except for Queen Kadra, the widow of his cousin King Urhod V. There were a couple of more remote branches of the family tree which are intertwined with the royal houses of other countries but these lines were only briefly investigated. Nothing interesting happened in this area until prince Maximus of Havalland presented a claim to the throne of Nhoor in July 2019. Talks were successful and on 29 February 2020 he succeeded to the throne as King Elerha Maximus.
In national politics, a scandal involving defence minister Demher being blackmailed into passing classified information to a yet unnamed criminal organisation in 2019 caused tensions between parliament and the government, and more direct attempts by the first to control the latter. So far, this situation has caused the forced dismissal of two First/Prime Ministers and ongoing debate among several political parties to change the nation's form of government.
Rulers of Nhoor