Das Vaterland ist Meine Ehre
The Fatherland is My Honor
Das Lied der Deutschen
The Song of the Germans
Territory of Germany in 1934
• Density: 135/km² or 181,000 sq mi
Capital and Largest City: Berlin
Official Language and National Language: German
Establishment: from the Weimar Republic
DNVP's Rise to Power: 2 August 1934
Third Reich Declaration: 15 August 1934
1934 Constitution Approved: 30 August 1934
Land Area: 468.787 km²
Water: 7.798 km²
GDP (PPP): $265.354 million (circa. 1936)
GDP (PPP) per capita: $1.126 (circa. 1936)
Human Development Index: 0.841 (circa. 1936)
Currency: Reichsmark (ℛℳ)
Time Zone: CET (UTC+1)
Drives on the: right
Calling Code: 49
The German Reich or commonly called Germany, is a federal, semi-presidential, authoritarian-democratic republic in central-western Europe. The current government claims to be the constitutional successor to the Weimar Republic, reinforced with the introduction of a new constitution denominated as the 1934 Constitution of the German Reich replacing the former Weimar Constitution in August 1934.
Germany shares a border with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and Czechoslovakia to the east, Lithuania to the northeast, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany covers 468.787 km² square kilometers and has an estimated population of around 69 million as of 1934. Germany is composed of 13 states and 3 free cities which together has a combined population of nearly 70 million. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, and its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, with Dortmund and Essen as its main center. Notable and major cities in Germany includes Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hannover and Nuremberg.
For most of its history, Germany was a heavily divided nation. The land of present-day Germany was inhabited by German-speaking peoples such as by the Eastern Franks. It was divided into numerous duchies, principalities, and many others, and its southern and western portion of it was invaded and conquered by the Romans before it collapses. Charlegmane was crowned as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope and had ruled a nation that encompasses most of the territories of present-day Germany. After its impending fall and division in 1806, its states were embroiled in a series of wars among local rulers throughout its history. The Habsburg monarchy also ruled a monopoly over the warring German states. The Protestant Reformation that occurred in 1517 had created an internal religious division which culminated in the Thirty Years' War. After peace was achieved in 1648, Prussia and the Austrian Empire rose to dominance in the German region. The Napoleonic Wars saw the Germanic states being conquered and after the Congress of Vienna in 1814 had the German territory left with 40 states after its previous war. Calls for a unified German state grew during the next later half-century and the Spring of Nations in 1848 made the idea of a unified German state seemingly more probable although had failed to achieve their cause of a unified state.
It was only in 1871 in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War that a unified a German state was achieved. Under Bismarck's chancellorship, Germany rose to become a great power through careful diplomacy and established itself as a colonial power. Soon, the nation was then involved in yet another war dubbed the First World War and lost in 1918 with the following signatory of the Treaty of Versailles afterward. The ensuing Weimar republican parliamentary era proved to be disastrous for the overall nation characterized by political upheavals, unstable political situation, and failing economy. The Weimar government replaced itself in 1934 after the DNVP's electoral victory with the creation of Nationales Deutsches Reich. Since then, Germany has experienced a fair amount of economic growth and has managed to stabilize itself after years of mismanagement under the Weimar era.
As of 1934, Germany is rapidly recovering itself from the disastrous Weimar era and it is beginning to assert itself as a great power in the international world, both economically and militarily. Germany has the 8th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by PPP in the world. Its standard of living has also seen a noticeable increase due to the government's many progressive policies with the introduction of social welfare and security, a universal healthcare system and free education. Furthermore, the nation also has seen a stabilization in the governmental system coupled with a decrease in civil unrest. Germany holds a high human development status according to the Human Development Index and is classified as an upper-middle income economy for its time. The German populace enjoys one of the highest standards of living in Europe and it excels in most fields of national performances such as in healthcare and education. Moreover, Germany has been credited for its influential figures and brightest minds in the fields of science, business, culture, and etc. With its prominent position in the international world, Germany is considered by many as a resurging industrial powerhouse and military power in Europe and will remain that way in the foreseeable future.
The English word for Germany originated from the Latin word of Germania which was first used by Roman leader, Julius Caesar to designate the people who lived at the east of the Rhine. Deutschland, its German name, comes from word deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc word of "popular" which in itself means "people" as well, and was originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin from its Romance descendants. Its contemporary official name still retains the designation Deutsches Reich, put in place since 1871, while usually the nation is called by its English name Germany or the German Reich.
The standard way to refer to a citizen of Germany is a "German."
The Protestant Reformation
In the High Middle Ages, the regional dukes, princes, and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany; more than 1/4 of the population and 1/2 of the male population in the German states were killed by the catastrophic war. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia, Bavaria, and Saxony.
The Franco-Prussian War
Germany was the dominant power on the continent. By 1900, its rapidly expanding industrial economy passed Britain's, allowing a naval race and an aggressive foreign policy. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I (1914–1918) against France, Great Britain, Russia and (by 1917) the United States. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as Polish areas and Alsace-Lorraine. The German Revolution of 1918–19 deposed the emperor and the various kings and princes, leading to the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy.
German Revolution of 1919
In the early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. For most of its history, the Weimar government was embroiled in constant political instability, rapid economic downturn, as well as a polarisation between left and right-wing political factions. The situations were exacerbated with the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. However, with the recent electoral victory of the German National People's Party and the assumption of Erhard Falkenrath into power in 1934 marked a turning point in German republican history. The new government proclaimed a Third Reich or the German Reich and the end to the bygone Weimar Republic as well as adopting a new constitution designated as the 1934 Constitution of the German Reich which replaced the late Weimar Constitution in August 1934.
DNVP Victory in
the 1934 Elections
The newly-elected government began to conduct a crackdown on radical political factions such as the Nazi Party and the Communist Party of Germany which were then banned and its members imprisoned or went into exile. The German Reich's foreign policy aimed to reclaim German lands stripped after World War I and the consequent Treaty of Versailles. This assertive and warlike foreign policy resulted in the remilizatarization of the Rheinland in 1936, the annexation of Danzig and Memelland as well as other German-speaking territories through the Frankfurt Agreement in 1938. The German government has also a pursued a policy of economic revitalization and rearmament through fraudulent Mefo Bills used to finance capital projects necessary for economic stimulation, massive governmental investment and support for German corporations and industries, the creation of a Four Year Plan for Germany's military rearmament and self-sufficiency, and establishing several clandestine military projects to make way for a military-advanced and fully-capable Reichswehr. As of 1934, the government has pushed for great strides in stabilizing the political system as well as the economy through a series of reformist policies.
Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently, in the northwest and the north, the climate is oceanic. Germany gets an average of 789 mm of precipitation per year; there is no consistent dry season. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 °C. The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.
The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. As of 1934, the majority of Germany is covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30.1%); only 13.4% of the area consists of permanent pastures, 11.8% is covered by settlements and streets. Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver. The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.
A Typical German Family
German Men in Bavarian
Clothing During Oktoberfest
- • Germans: A Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe sharing a common language called German. It is the dominant ethnic group in Germany and has influenced the region's culture and history for decades. There are approximately sixty-eight million people currently living in Germany and more throughout the European continent.
• Ashkenazi Jews: A prevalent Jewish diaspora population that inhabits Germany. It emerged as a distinct ethnic group within the Jewish community in the time of the Holy Roman Empire. It speaks a unique language called Yiddish and its numbers are estimated to be around five hundred thousand.
• Southern Schleswig Danes: An ethnic minority of Danes living in Southern Schleswig in Northern Germany. The distinct Danish ethnic group came to be after the Schleswig Plebiscite which left the Danes having to live in German-majority Southern Schleswig. Today, there are around thirty-five thousand Danes living in the region.
• Sorbs: Also known as Lusatians and Wends; the Sorbs are a West Slavic group that inhabits the Lusatian region. The Sorbs speak a traditional language called Sorbian, bearing resemblance with other Slavic languages. Moreover, they constitute around thirty thousand of the German population.
• Romani: A travelling ethnic group originating from the northern Indian subcontinent. The Gypsies have since then immigrated to Europe and particularly in Germany. Their numbers are around eighty thousand and have frequently persecution in German society.
• Other Europeans: In recent years saw foreign migrants from European countries migrating to Germany after a series of foreign work programs conducted by the government. These workers are called 'Gastarbeiter' and they mostly originate from Mediterranean nations such as from Greece, Italy, Spain, and others. They make up no less than twenty thousand people due to strict governmental regulations and policies regarding immigration.
Metro area population
GDP (nominal) per capita: