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German Reich Overview (Wiki-Style) (Heavy WIP) (Unsafe to Open)

Overview of the German Reich

German Reich
Deutsches Reich



Motto
Das Vaterland ist Meine Ehre
The Fatherland is My Honor


Anthem
LinkDas Lied der Deutschen
The Song of the Germans

Link


Territory of Germany in 1934


Population: 69,300,000
Density: 135/km² or 181,000 sq mi


Capital and Largest City: LinkBerlin


Official Language and National Language: LinkGerman


Demonym: German


Government: LinkFederal, Linksemi-presidential,
Linkauthoritarian Linkrule by decree, Linkrepublic

LinkPresident: Erhard Falkenrath
LinkChancellor: Konstantin von Essen


Legislature: LinkReichstag
State Council: LinkReichsrat


Establishment: from the LinkWeimar Republic
DNVP's Rise to Power: 2 August 1934
Third Reich Declaration: 15 August 1934
1934 Constitution Approved: 30 August 1934


Land Area: 468.787 km²
Water: 7.798 km²


GDP (PPP): $265.354 million (circa. 1936)
GDP (PPP) per capita: $1.126 (circa. 1936)


Human Development Index: 0.841 (circa. 1936)


Currency: LinkReichsmark (ℛℳ)


Time Zone: CET (LinkUTC+1)


Drives on the: right


Calling Code: 49


Germany


The German Reich or commonly called Germany, is a Linkfederal, Linksemi-presidential, Linkauthoritarian-democratic Linkrepublic in Linkcentral-Linkwestern Europe. The current government claims to be the constitutional successor to the LinkWeimar Republic, reinforced with the introduction of a new constitution denominated as the 1934 Constitution of the German Reich replacing the former LinkWeimar Constitution in August 1934.

Germany shares a border with LinkDenmark bordering to the north, LinkPoland and LinkCzechoslovakia to the east, LinkLithuania to the northeast, LinkAustria to the southeast, LinkSwitzerland to the south-southwest, LinkFrance, LinkLuxembourg and LinkBelgium to the west, and the LinkNetherlands to the northwest. Germany covers 468.787 km² square kilometers and has an estimated population of around 69 million as of 1934. Germany is composed of 13 states and 3 free cities which together has a combined population of nearly 70 million. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is LinkBerlin, and its largest conurbation is the LinkRuhr, with LinkDortmund and LinkEssen as its main center. Notable and major cities in Germany includes LinkHamburg, LinkMunich, LinkCologne, LinkFrankfurt, LinkStuttgart, LinkDüsseldorf, LinkLeipzig, LinkBremen, LinkDresden, LinkHannover and LinkNuremberg.

For most of its history, Germany was a heavily divided nation. The land of present-day Germany was inhabited by German-speaking peoples such as by the LinkEastern Franks. It was divided into numerous duchies, principalities, and many others, and its southern and western portion of it was invaded and conquered by the LinkRomans before it collapses. LinkCharlegmane was crowned as LinkEmperor of the LinkHoly Roman Empire by the LinkPope and had ruled a nation that encompasses most of the territories of present-day Germany. After its impending fall and division in 1806, its states were embroiled in a series of wars among local rulers throughout its history. The LinkHabsburg monarchy also ruled a monopoly over the warring German states. The LinkProtestant Reformation that occurred in 1517 had created an internal religious division which culminated in the LinkThirty Years' War. After peace was achieved in 1648, LinkPrussia and the LinkAustrian Empire rose to dominance in the German region. The LinkNapoleonic Wars saw the Germanic states being conquered and after the LinkCongress of Vienna in 1814 had the German territory left with 40 states after its previous war. Calls for a unified German state grew during the next later half-century and the LinkSpring of Nations in 1848 made the idea of a unified German state seemingly more probable although had failed to achieve their cause of a unified state.

It was only in 1871 in the aftermath of the LinkFranco-Prussian War that a unified a German state was achieved. Under LinkBismarck's chancellorship, Germany rose to become a Linkgreat power through careful diplomacy and established itself as a Linkcolonial power. Soon, the nation was then involved in yet another war dubbed the LinkFirst World War and lost in 1918 with the following signatory of the LinkTreaty of Versailles afterward. The ensuing Weimar republican parliamentary era proved to be disastrous for the overall nation characterized by political upheavals, unstable political situation, and failing economy. The Weimar government replaced itself in 1934 after the LinkDNVP's electoral victory with the creation of Nationales Deutsches Reich. Since then, Germany has experienced a fair amount of economic growth and has managed to stabilize itself after years of mismanagement under the Weimar era.

As of 1934, Germany is rapidly recovering itself from the disastrous LinkWeimar era and it is beginning to assert itself as a great power in the international world, both economically and militarily. Germany has the 8th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by PPP in the world. Its standard of living has also seen a noticeable increase due to the government's many progressive policies with the introduction of Linksocial welfare and security, a Linkuniversal healthcare system and Linkfree education. Furthermore, the nation also has seen a stabilization in the governmental system coupled with a decrease in civil unrest. Germany holds a high human development status according to the LinkHuman Development Index and is classified as an Linkupper-middle income economy for its time. The German populace enjoys one of the highest standards of living in LinkEurope and it excels in most fields of national performances such as in healthcare and education. Moreover, Germany has been credited for its influential figures and brightest minds in the fields of science, business, culture, and etc. With its prominent position in the international world, Germany is considered by many as a resurging industrial powerhouse and military power in Europe and will remain that way in the foreseeable future.

Etymology

The English word for Germany originated from the LinkLatin word of LinkGermania which was first used by LinkRoman leader, LinkJulius Caesar to designate the people who lived at the east of the LinkRhine. Deutschland, its LinkGerman name, comes from word deutsch, descended from LinkOld High German diutisc word of "popular" which in itself means "people" as well, and was originally used to distinguish the Linklanguage of the common people from Latin from its LinkRomance descendants. Its contemporary official name still retains the designation LinkDeutsches Reich, put in place since 1871, while usually the nation is called by its English name Germany or the German Reich.

The standard way to refer to a citizen of Germany is a "German."

History


The Protestant Reformation
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from LinkGaul (France), which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the LinkBattle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) prevented annexation by the LinkRoman Empire, although the LinkRoman provinces of LinkGermania Superior and LinkGermania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the LinkFall of the Western Roman Empire, the LinkFranks conquered the other LinkWest LinkGermanic tribes. When the LinkFrankish Empire was divided among LinkCharlemagne's heirs in 843, the eastern part became LinkEast Francia. In 962, LinkOtto I became the first Linkemperor of the LinkHoly Roman Empire, the medieval German state.

In the LinkHigh Middle Ages, the regional dukes, princes, and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. LinkMartin Luther led the LinkProtestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the LinkThirty Years' War (1618–1648), which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany; more than 1/4 of the population and 1/2 of the male population in the German states were killed by the catastrophic war. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as LinkPrussia, LinkBavaria, and LinkSaxony.


The Franco-Prussian War
After the LinkFrench Revolution and the LinkNapoleonic Wars (1803–1815), feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction. The Link1848 March Revolution failed. The LinkIndustrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the LinkSocialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for science and the humanities, while music and the arts flourished. The LinkUnification of Germany was achieved under the leadership of Chancellor LinkOtto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in 1871 which solved the LinkKleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution (Germany without Austria), or Großdeutsche Lösung, the greater Germany solution (Germany with Austria), the former prevailed. The new LinkReichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in Linkcolonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific.

Germany was the dominant power on the continent. By 1900, its rapidly expanding industrial economy passed Britain's, allowing a naval race and an aggressive foreign policy. Germany led the LinkCentral Powers in LinkWorld War I (1914–1918) against France, Great Britain, Russia and (by 1917) the United States. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay Linkwar reparations by the LinkTreaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as Polish areas and LinkAlsace-Lorraine. The LinkGerman Revolution of 1918–19 deposed the emperor and the various kings and princes, leading to the establishment of the LinkWeimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy.


German Revolution of 1919

In the early 1930s, the worldwide LinkGreat Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. For most of its history, the Weimar government was embroiled in constant political instability, rapid economic downturn, as well as a polarisation between left and right-wing political factions. The situations were exacerbated with the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. However, with the recent electoral victory of the German National People's Party and the assumption of Erhard Falkenrath into power in 1934 marked a turning point in German republican history. The new government proclaimed a Third Reich or the German Reich and the end to the bygone Weimar Republic as well as adopting a new constitution designated as the 1934 Constitution of the German Reich which replaced the late Weimar Constitution in August 1934.


DNVP Victory in
the 1934 Elections

The newly-elected government began to conduct a crackdown on radical political factions such as the LinkNazi Party and the LinkCommunist Party of Germany which were then banned and its members imprisoned or went into exile. The German Reich's foreign policy aimed to reclaim German lands stripped after World War I and the consequent Treaty of Versailles. This assertive and warlike foreign policy resulted in the Linkremilizatarization of the Rheinland in 1936, the annexation of LinkDanzig and LinkMemelland as well as other German-speaking territories through the Frankfurt Agreement in 1938. The German government has also a pursued a policy of economic revitalization and rearmament through fraudulent LinkMefo Bills used to finance capital projects necessary for economic stimulation, massive governmental investment and support for German corporations and industries, the creation of a LinkFour Year Plan for Germany's military rearmament and self-sufficiency, and establishing several clandestine military projects to make way for a military-advanced and fully-capable Reichswehr. As of 1934, the government has pushed for great strides in stabilizing the political system as well as the economy through a series of reformist policies.

Geography


The Mummelsee
Germany is located in between LinkWestern and LinkCentral Europe, with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and Czechoslovakia to the east, Lithuania to the northeast, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 47° and 55° N and longitudes 5° and 16° E. Germany is also bordered by the LinkNorth Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the LinkBaltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water LinkLake Constance, the third largest lake in Central Europe. German territory covers 476,585 km², consisting of 468.787 km² of land and 7,798 km² of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the Link53rd largest in the world.


Map of the German Reich

Most of Germany has a Linktemperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the Linkoceanic Western European and the Linkcontinental Eastern European climate. The climate is moderated by the LinkNorth Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the LinkGulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently, in the northwest and the north, the climate is oceanic. Germany gets an average of 789 mm of Linkprecipitation per year; there is no consistent dry season. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 Link°C. The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.

The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two Linkecoregions: LinkEuropean-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. As of 1934, the majority of Germany is covered by either Linkarable land (34%) or Linkforest and Linkwoodland (30.1%); only 13.4% of the area consists of permanent Linkpastures, 11.8% is covered by Linksettlements and Linkstreets. Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. LinkBeeches, Linkoaks, and other Linkdeciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; Linkconifers are increasing as a result of Linkreforestation. LinkSpruce and Linkfir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while Linkpine and Linklarch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of Linkferns, Linkflowers, Linkfungi, and Linkmosses. Wild animals include Linkroe deer, Linkwild boar, Linkmouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), Linkfox, Linkbadger, Linkhare, and small numbers of the LinkEurasian beaver. The Linkblue Linkcornflower was once a German Linknational symbol.

Demographics

Population


A Typical German Family
Germany has an estimated population of sixty-nine million people as of August 1934. With a population of 69,340,000; it is Europe's second most populous nation and the Linkseventh largest in the world after the Netherlands. In addition, the German Reich represents 3.5% of the world's population. The Linkpopulation density in Germany stands at 135 inhabitants per square kilometer or 181 square miles. The average Germans have an overall Linklife expectancy of 75.1 years at birth (73.8 for males and 78.2 for females). A significant increase from the previous 67.5 years of life expectancy in 1932. Fertility rates in Germany are 2.40 children per German women and are experiencing a rapid growth in population in comparison to the declination of Linkbirth rates under the Weimar era. Since the mid-1930s, Germany saw a decline in Linkdeath rates whilst simultaneously experiencing a growth in population through many policies set on to increase the living standards of the average German. Coupled with a rising population growth rate, the numbers of a well-educated workforce and the numbers of Linkmiddle-class families also began to noticeably increase as well. There are four sizable ethnic minority groups residing in several regions throughout the nation for centuries. Four of these ethnic groups consists of; LinkDanes who lived in the northernmost state of LinkSchleswig-Holstein, the LinkSlavic populace known as LinkSorbs in LinkLusatia, and several LinkFrisians that resides in the western coast of Schleswig-Holstein and the north-western part of LinkLower Saxony. However, a recently-passed governmental law in 1936 aiming for national assimilation and integration has led these ethnic minorities to voluntarily identify themselves as Germans in the process which makes these figures hard to conclude. A significant populace of LinkRomanis, LinkSintis, and LinkJews also exists inside the nation. In recent years, Germany is experiencing a growth in foreign immigration from European nations migrating into the nation for work. These workers are dubbed as guest workers or LinkGastarbeiter. Thus, it has housed and employed hundred thousands of foreign European immigrant workers in which most of these workers originate from nations such as LinkItaly, LinkGreece, and LinkSpain. In addition, ethnic Germans from foreign nations such as in Czechoslovakia and Poland where a sizable German-speaking minority exists would immigrate into the Reich as well.

Language


Deutsches Wörterbuch
LinkGerman is the nation's official and predominant spoken language. Over 96 percent of the country speaks a standardized form of German called LinkStandard German or numerous other regional German dialects as their first language. Standard German was developed in the Linkearly modern period based on a combination of Central German and Upper German varieties. German is a LinkWest Germanic language which is classified with and shares a relation with languages such as LinkLow German,LinkDutch, LinkAfrikaans, LinkFrisian, and LinkEnglish. To a lesser extent, it is also related to LinkNorth Germanic languages. German words mostly originated from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family although, the language also contains a significant minority of words from languages such as LinkLatin and LinkGreek. German also borrows a small amount of words from languages such as LinkFrench and English. LinkGerman dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the LinkHigh German consonant shift, and the Linkdialect continua that connect German to the neighboring varieties of LinkLow Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian. The varieties of German are conventionally grouped into Upper German, Central German and Low German; Upper and Central German form the High German subgroup. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups such as Low German or LinkPlautdietsch are alternatively referred to as "languages" and "dialects". German is the most widely spoken first language in Europe, with around 69 million native speakers inside Germany. Germans are typically multilingual: 58% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 14% in at least two. Recognised native minority languages in Germany includes LinkDanish, LinkLow German, LinkLow Rhenish, LinkSorbian, LinkNorth Frisian and LinkSaterland Frisian.

Religion


Dresden Frauenkirche
Since it's establishment, Germany is a Linksecular nation which guarantees Linkfreedom of religion within its borders. The nation's constitution ensures that the Linkchurch is separated from the state regarding religious affairs within the government. However, its status as a secular nation has been regarded as ambiguous ever since the DNVP's rise to power in 1934, as the government formed a ministerial position called the Minister for Church Affairs supervising interreligious affairs in the nation as well as promoting religious customs within its government. Furthermore, several German Linkarchbishops, Linkbishops, and other Linkclergy members held position within the government as well. There were also calls for Germany to implement LinkChristianity as the Linkstate religion although its appeals aren't put into serious consideration by the government. In spite of all of it, the government is mostly secular in nature as well as in practice. For most of its existence, German religion is dominated by two Christian denomination, namely LinkProtestantism and LinkCatholicism with a significant minority of LinkJews in the German nation. Because of the historical political and religious development in the region, Germany's Christian denominations are spread out throughout specific regions. Traditionally, Protestants are concentrated in the northern, central, and eastern region of the country while Catholics dominated the south and west of Germany. Both of Germany's major religions, Protestantism and members of the LinkEvangelical Church in Germany such as LinkLutherans and LinkReformed, and the Roman Catholic church are more or less evenly split with the rest consisting of the Jews and other religious minorities. According to a national census conducted in 1934; Protestants and EKD members comprised 54,1 percent while Roman Catholics represented 40,7 percent of Christians. While Jews and other religions made up 2,7% of the nation's believers. In recent years, Linkirreligiousity gradually grew in the past few decades which consequently, resulted in LinkAtheism among its populace to grow as well. However, atheists are not prosecuted and are tolerated by the government due to the secularity it maintains.

Ethnicity


German Men in Bavarian
Clothing During Oktoberfest
Germany is a racially homogenous nation where ethnic Germans comprise around 96% of Germany's population according to a national census released in October 1934. The term 'German' applies to other ethnic groups such as Sorbs, Danes, and Frisians. Jews make up nearly 3% of Germany's demographics. Furthermore, there exist a small minority of foreigners mostly originating from European nations, especially from LinkMediterranean nations. The German lands have always been inhabited by Germanic people for centuries where they faced occupation from foreign forces and settled throughout the lands for many years. Although immigration and interracial mixings have shifted the demographics of the people in Germany throughout the years. There are few ethnic minorities in Germany since its foundation. Eventually, in modern years, Germany has seen an influx of foreign workers immigrating to the nation. Germany is now comprised of five ethnic groups. These are as followed:

    LinkGermans: A Germanic ethnic group native to LinkCentral Europe sharing a common language called German. It is the dominant ethnic group in Germany and has influenced the region's Linkculture and Linkhistory for decades. There are approximately sixty-eight million people currently living in Germany and more throughout the European continent.

    LinkAshkenazi Jews: A prevalent LinkJewish diaspora population that inhabits Germany. It emerged as a distinct ethnic group within the Jewish community in the time of the Holy Roman Empire. It speaks a unique language called LinkYiddish and its numbers are estimated to be around five hundred thousand.

    LinkSouthern Schleswig Danes: An ethnic minority of Danes living in LinkSouthern Schleswig in LinkNorthern Germany. The distinct Danish ethnic group came to be after the LinkSchleswig Plebiscite which left the Danes having to live in German-majority Southern Schleswig. Today, there are around thirty-five thousand Danes living in the region.

    LinkSorbs: Also known as Lusatians and Wends; the Sorbs are a LinkWest Slavic group that inhabits the LinkLusatian region. The Sorbs speak a traditional language called LinkSorbian, bearing resemblance with other LinkSlavic languages. Moreover, they constitute around thirty thousand of the German population.

    LinkRomani: A travelling ethnic group originating from the northern LinkIndian subcontinent. The Gypsies have since then immigrated to Europe and particularly in Germany. Their numbers are around eighty thousand and have frequently persecution in German society.

    Other Europeans: In recent years saw foreign migrants from European countries migrating to Germany after a series of foreign work programs conducted by the government. These workers are called 'Gastarbeiter' and they mostly originate from Mediterranean nations such as from Greece, Italy, Spain, and others. They make up no less than twenty thousand people due to strict governmental regulations and policies regarding immigration.

Largest Cities

Rank

City

Metro area population

State

1

CITY#1

CITY1POPULATION

CITY1STATE

2

CITY2

CITY2POPULATION

CITY2STATE

3

CITY3

CITY3POPULATION

CITY3STATE

4

CITY4

CITY4POPULATION

CITY4STATE

5

CITY5

CITY5POPULATION

CITY5STATE

6

CITY6

CITY6POPULATION

CITY6STATE

7

CITY7

CITY7POPULATION

CITY7STATE

8

CITY8

CITY8POPULATION

CITY8STATE

9

CITY9

CITY9POPULATION

CITY9STATE

10

CITY10

CITY10POPULATION

CITY10STATE

Government

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Economic Indicators

Rank:
Currency:
Fiscal Year:


GDP (nominal):
GDP (nominal) per capita:
Labor Force:
Unemployment:

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