by Max Barry

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Executive of Nangka - The Nangka Directory

Ang Sanggunian ng Nangka / The Nangka Directory
lit. The Council of Nangka


Pangulo ng Sanggunian:
President of the Directory

Partido Demokratiko Konfederalista - 1
Democratic Confederalist Party

Mga Pangalawang Pangulo ng Sanggunian:
Vice Presidents of the Directory

Partido Demokratiko Konfederalista - 4
Democratic Confederalist Party

Partido Katipunan - 3
Katipunan Party

Partido Demokratiko Liberasyonista - 2
Democratic Liberationist Party

Partido Sosyalistang Makakalikasan - 2
Green Socialist Party

Partido Filipino - 1
Filipino Party


History of the Directory

The directory was first conceived of in 2014 during the formation of the new, independent government of Nangka. During the 2014 Constitutional Convention, polling data gathered during the convention found growing dissatisfaction with the Philippine - and, by extension, American - model of one strong executive having power over the whole nation, with the greatest fear being that the power of the presidency made it more susceptible to corruption and authoritarian rule. Many sectors of society further attempted to put out proposals to remedy this, with some ranging from limiting the powers of the presidency, turning the presidency into a ceremonial role, and getting rid of the presidency altogether and instead relying on a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. The latter was, by far, one of the leading contenders until a joint proposal was brought forward by some leading political scientists, supported by the recently renamed Trade Union Congress of Nangka and the newly-consecrated Archbishop of Marikina, to emulate the executive system of Switzerland of a directorial republic. This proposal was well received and was amended with the addition of a separate election for president, or head of the directory, and further amendments increased the size of the proposed directory from six directors to twelve, with the president being the thirteenth. This motion was passed and approved by the Constitutional Convention, and was ratified in the subsequent referendum, and the first Directory was elected in May of 2016.

Under this directorial system, the president would still be the leading executive of Nangka, but his power would be curtailed by twelve independently elected directors, known as a Vice President, Pangalawang Pangulo, or Bise Presidente. As stipulated in the constitution, each vice president will be the head of one of the twelve executive departments of Nangka, but they will not be running for those positions (a candidate will not be running to be the Vice President for Foreign Affairs, or the Vice President for Education, etc.). Instead, they will be running to be vice president and the twelve winners will deliberate among themselves who will be leading which department, to be approved by the other members through a simple majority vote.

Once they have chosen which department they will be leading, each vice president is given the liberty to choose the number of sub-departments, known as bureaus, their executive department will have. All the departments are supposed to have at least two undersecretaries, but many have more than three. All undersecretary appointments have to undergo two stages of approval: firstly, their financial records have to be opened to the public and vetted by the Court of Auditors, which falls under the jurisdiction of the Nangka Supreme Court, and once they have passed this stage, their appointment has to be approved by the Committee on Executive Appointments, a congressional committee staffed by members of the Chamber of Deputies, which handles all personnel appointments by the executive branch of Nangka.

All twelve vice presidents are elected at-large through a single-transferable vote. Both the president and all twelve vice presidents serve a six-year term, and have a term limit of only serving for twelve years in either position. This means that if you've served two terms or twelve years as vice president, you are ineligible to run for president.

According to the constitution, in order to run for president or vice president, one must be "a natural-born citizen of Nangka, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least 35 years old on the day of the election, hold no other citizenship, and a legal resident of Nangka since before its independence or for at least twelve years preceding such election." This statement was copied almost word for word from the Philippine constitution, save for a few alterations, such as barring dual citizens from the Directory, and lowering the age of candidacy from 40 to 35.


Members of the Directory

The current (July, 2019) members of the directory, elected last May 2016, are:

Member of Directory

Party

Position

Isabel Teodoro

Democratic Confederalist Party

President of the Nangka Directory

Seymour Dela Costa

Democratic Confederalist Party

Vice President for Civil Defense

Ronald Uy

Filipino Party

Vice President for Culture and the Arts

Fatima Tolentino

Green Socialist Party

Vice President for Energy and Environment

Regina Santiago

Democratic Confederalist Party

Vice President for Education

Francis Mateo

Democratic Liberationist Party

Vice President for Finance

Via Tan

Democratic Confederalist Party

Vice President for Foreign Relations

Patrick Aguilar

Katipunan Party

Vice President for Health and Social Welfare

Christian Angeles

Democratic Confederalist Party

Vice President for the Interior and Barangay Relations

Joanna Andres

Katipunan Party

Vice President for Justice

Arsenio Locsin

Democratic Liberationist Party

Vice President for Labor, Trade, and Industry

Justine De Leon

Green Socialist Party

Vice President for Science and Technology

Francesca Cortez

Katipunan Party

Vice President for Transport and Urban Development


Executive Departments of the Directory

President Isabel Teodoro
PDK/DCP
Pangulo ng Nangka at ng Sanggunian
President of Nangka and the Directory

Taking a page out of the playbook of the Swiss Confederation, the President of Nangka and the Directory does not hold special powers above all the others, and is instead considered first among equals. The President is not even considered, according to the constitution, as the Head of State of Nangka. The whole Directory is considered the collective head of state of the country.

The President, in their role as first among equals, presides over Directory meetings and gets to decide what issues the Directory gets to take up on that working day. This, arguably, is one of the most distinguishing powers of the President, as he acts like a Senate President or a Speaker of the House would. As President, they take over functions traditionally relegated to something a head of state would do such as acting as the representative of Nangka. The President is recognized as a head of state during foreign visits and receives foreign visiting heads of state.

Vice President Seymour Dela Costa
PDK/DCP
Kagawaran ng Tanggulang Sibil
Department of Civil Defense

The DCD acts as the military and police force of the city-state. The DCD's role as a police force is extremely limited to exceptionally violent circumstances (this term, in the constitution, is left vague but is considered to mean large violent confrontations such as mass shootings). Their primary role is the safety and protection of Nangka, specifically of its borders. Nangka is an enclave, completely surrounded on all sides by the Philippines. The goal of Nangka, according to the constitution, is a world and a society without any need for borders and border security.

Before that goal is achieved, however, the DCD has to rely on Nangka's 5000-man Civil Defense Force (Hukbong Tanggulang Sibil). The CDF is divided into four service branches: the Land Force (Hukbong Lupain), which handles border security and other external threats; the Air Defense Force (Hukbong Himpapawid), the River Navy Defense Force (Hukbong Ilog), and the Interior Security Force (Hukbong Seguridad Panloob), which handles Nangka's internal security, and disaster management.

Of those four branches, the Internal Security Force is the largest, with over half of the manpower of the whole CDF, as they not only act as the country's security force but they also serve as the country's emergency fire and medical service.

The four branches of the CDF are all administered by an equivalent high-ranking officer and all four branches are governed by one general who doubles as the undersecretary for the Civil Defense Force. The DCD has two undersecretaries: one for the Civil Defense Force, and another undersecretary for Barangay policing.

Vice President Ronald Uy
PF/FP
Kagawaran ng Sining at Kultura
Department of Culture and the Arts

The DCA, one of the lesser-known, but not less important, executive departments of the Directory is responsible for the preservation and proliferation of Nangkan culture and history, as well as the development and promotion of the thriving culture and arts scene of the city-state. It is the single largest arts council in the city, rivaling in scope and funding its Philippine counterpart. It proposes and implements policies that pertain to the culture and the arts of Nangka, which includes the doling out of government-sponsored funds for art exhibits, film, theater, music and other performing arts productions, as well as subsidies and research grants for artists, cultural workers, and other kinds of scholars with projects concerning the preservation, development, and/or the promotion of culture and the arts in Nangka.

The DCA has three bureaus with corresponding undersecretaries: the Bureau of Cultural Properties Protection and Preservation which handles the preservation of Nangka's cultural and historical sites; the Bureau for the Development of Artistic Resources which doles out grants to artists and other arts projects and productions; and the Bureau for Cultural Research and Education, which doles out grants to cultural workers and other scholars of the arts and funds cultural educational programs.

Vice President Fatima Tolentino
PDL/DLP
Kagawaran ng Enerhiya at Kalikasan
Department of Energy and the Environment

The DEE is the executive department responsible both for the conservation of Nangka's environmental beauty and natural resources, as well as the supervision, organization, and maintenance of the city-state's energy needs, as well as overseeing the country's eventual transition into more clean and renewable sources of energy.

The department is split into three bureaus governed by three undersecretaries: the Bureau of Energy which concerns itself with the power-generation needs of the city-state, the Bureau of Environmental Conservation which deals with the preservation of the natural environment of Nangka, and the Bureau of Natural Resources which handles the sustainable use of Nangka's natural resources.

Vice President Regina Santiago
PDK/DCP
Kagawaran ng Edukasyon
Department of Education

The Department of Education is the executive department of Nangka that is responsible for ensuring the full access of educational services to all Nangkans who seek it, as well as improving the quality of said educational systems. Almost all but very few private educational institutions in Nangka were shut down after independence, and their resources were reallocated towards the public educational facilities of the barangays which need them the most. As such, the quality of education in Nangka, did take a massive hit and drop in quality, but was able to rebound almost immediately. It is rivaling the Philippines' own Quezon City in terms of quality of students, if a lack in quality of educational facilities is present. The DepEd is responsible with the primary, secondary, and tertiary educational systems of the city-state, and handles the formulation of policies that pertain to those said systems.

The Department of Education has eight undersecretaries and bureaus: the Bureau for Pre-Primary Education, which handles preschool education; the Bureau for Primary Education, which handles the concerns of elementary education; the Bureau for Secondary Education, which deals with high school affairs; the Bureau for Tertiary Education, which deals with college-level concerns; the Bureau for Curriculum Development, which handles the progress that needs to be made with the country's curricular concerns; the Bureau for Alternative and Vocational Education, which deals with non-college vocational courses and other educational avenues for the differently-abled; the Bureau for Financial and Material Aid which handles the giving out of financial and material support for students and potential students; and the Bureau for Student Exchange and Overseas Education, which handles the networking of Nangkans who wish to study outside of the country as well as the student exchange programs Nangka has with other universities and colleges.

Vice President Francis Mateo
PDL/DLP
Kagawaran ng Pananalapi
Department of Finance

As their name suggests, the DOF is responsible for the handling of the city-state's fiscal policies, as well as making sure that these fiscal policies align with the country's push for an economy centered more on socialist principles. Its current push is the management of the already strained financial resources of the country, as well as the adoption of policies that can not just help manage these said resources but help the country's budget grow. The country's focus not on austerity and fiscal conservatism and more on government-run programs and welfare institutions has made this difficult, but the productivity of the country's burgeoning union-led industries has helped offset a lot of largest problems the country has.

The four bureaus of the Department of Finance are: the Bureau of Internal Revenue, which handles tax collection and the enforcement of the tax code, the Bureau of Customs, which handles customs revenues from goods coming in and out of Nangka, the Bureau of Barangay Finance, which oversees the finances of the barangays and their financial obligations to the national government, and the Bureau of Socialist Economic Development, which handles research of possible future economic policies as well as reviewing past and present policies. The BSED also acts as the department's oversight board, making sure that all financial policies are socialist in nature and are for the betterment of all.

Vice President Via Tan
PDK/DCP
Kagawaran ng Ugnayang Panlabas
Department of Foreign Affairs

The Department of Foreign Affairs works as the main executive arm of the government for handling concerns that deal with the country's relations with other countries, the protection of the country's sovereignty, the safeguarding of the welfare of Nangkans living and working abroad, and the projection of a positive image for Nangka in the world. The Vice President for Foreign Affairs is considered to be the country's top diplomat, and every single embassy and ambassador falls under their purview.

The department has eleven bureaus that handle relations with a certain area of the world: the Bureau for Philippine Relations, the Bureau for Southeast Asian Relations, the Bureau for Asia-Pacific Relations, the Bureau for Australasian Relations, the Bureau for Central Asian and Middle Eastern Relations, the Bureau for North and Central African Relations, the Bureau for Southern African Relations, the Bureau for Western and Southern European Relations, the Bureau for Northern and Eastern European Relations, the Bureau for North and Central American Relations, and the Bureau for South American Relations.

Along with these eleven bureaus, the department also has one extra bureau: the Bureau for Migrant Affairs, which deals with the welfare of Nangkans living and working abroad.

Vice President Patrick Aguilar
PK/KP
Kagawaran ng Kalusugan at Kalingang Panlipunan
Department of Health and Social Welfare

As its name suggests, the DHSW deals with policies and enforcement of policies relating to the advancement of the social welfare of the people in Nangka, and the protection and accessibility of quality health services in the country. The country's policies of ensuring free and accessible universal health care and the expansive social welfare programs and institutions have been putting a strain on the country's budget, but progressive policies have been able to keep these programs and institutions floating for the time being.

The department is divided into two parts by four bureaus, all of which handle either social welfare or the country's public health systems: the Bureau of Social Welfare Institutions and the Bureau for Social Welfare Systems; and the Bureau of Public Health Institutions and the Bureau for Public Health Systems,

Vice President Christian Angeles
PDK/DCP
Kagawaran ng Interyor at Pambarangay na Ugnayan
Department of the Interior and Barangay Relations

The main duties of the DIBR is to improve cooperation between barangays as well as improve coordination between the barangays and the Directory. The DIBR's role also extends to the community policing in the form of the thousands of social workers that work as counselors and mediators, with their main goal being harm prevention and rehabilitation. In their duties as an Interior ministry, the DIBR also works to be able to provide quality basic services to the country, and to ensure the capabilities of all national and barangay government officials and institutions in delivering effectively these said basic services.

The DIBR has sixteen undersecretaries that deal with relations with the sixteen barangays of Nangka: from the Población of Santa Elena to the humongous barangays of Malanday and Concepcion Uno, all of them get one undersecretary handling them.

Along with this, the department also has two other bureaus: the Bureau of Public Safety and Welfare, which handles the thousands of social workers that go into the communities, reach out, and rehabilitate those who stray from the law; and the Bureau for Disaster Risk Reduction, which enacts and enforces policies that helps better prepare Nangka against disasters, such as floods, fires, and earthquakes.

Vice President Joanna Andres
PK/KP
Kagawaran ng Katarungan
Department of Justice

The Department of Justice, as their name suggests, is responsible for upholding the constitution and laws of Nangka. The Department of Justice, working hand-in-hand with the independent judiciary system of Nangka, helps craft, enact, and enforce policies that help maintain the rule of law in Nangka, as well as help make sure that the country's drive for a more just, humane, rehabilitative system of laws, is upheld and pushed even further.

Under the purview of the DoJ are five bureaus: the Bureau of the Solicitor General, the legal representative of the Directory and the whole executive; the Public Attorney's Bureau, which provides free legal assistance to citizens of Nangka; the Union and Organizational Counsellor's Bureau, which provides legal assistance to the country's trade unions and other organizations; the Bureau of Migrants, which deals with immigrants and emigrants concerns alike, and the Bureau of Land Concerns which handles land rights claims and concerns as well as covering the legality of the country's land redistribution efforts.

Vice President Arsenio Locsin
PDL/DLP
Kagawaran ng Paggawa, Kalakalan, at Industriya
Department of Labor, Trade, and Industry

The DLTI is the executive department of the Directory that is mandated to formulate and enact polices relating to the fields of, as the title of the department says, labor, trade, and industry. Specifically, its policies emphasize the value and dignity of working peoples and of their importance in the economy, as opposed to the former Philippine government's emphasis on deregularization and its myriad of anti-poor and anti-union policies and actions.

The DLTC has four bureaus under its wings: the Bureau of Investments and International Trade, which focuses on the country's relationships with possible overseas trading partners; the Bureau of Labor and Union Relations, which focuses on keeping the lines of communication between the unions, their employers, and other laborers; the Bureau of Working Conditions, which makes sure that every single business and industry in Nangka is following business regulation when it comes to the welfare of its workers; and the Bureau of International Labor Relations, which fosters the "relationships of solidarity" between workers and unions in Nangka with workers and unions outside the country.

The BILR is known by the nickname of "the International Bureau" because of the Bureau's relationship with international workers organizations such as the IWW, and its sometimes heavily-criticized stance of supporting strikes throughout the world not just in word but also in action, as they have been known to recommend sending aid to unions striking in the Philippines, where most of the aid goes, and in other parts of the world.

Vice President Justine De Leon
PSM/GSP
Kagawaran ng Agham at Teknolohiya
Department of Science and Technology

The DST is the main department of the Directory that focuses on coordinating and collating all kinds of projects and research initiatives and being able to craft and enforce policies relating to science and technology. The DST is one of the smallest executive departments of the Directory, and it has also been receiving the lowest budget ever since the new country's independence, despite lobbying from various organizations, as well as lobbying from the Green Socialist Party, whose one of two members in the executive has been leading the department since 2016.

The DST only has two bureaus: the Bureau of Research and Development, which focuses on giving out grants to research projects, and the Bureau of Environmental Technologies, which focuses on giving grants to climate and environment-related research projects as well as acquiring more environmentally conscious and sustainable technologies of all kinds.

Vice President Francesca Cortez
PK/KP
Kagawaran ng Transportasyon at Urbanong Pagpapaunlad
Department of Transportation and Urban Development

Technically the newest department in the executive. The Department of Transportation and Urban Development was "refounded," as it were, when a department for Urban Development was needed. So, after the midterm election of May 2019, the former Department of Transportation was expanded to become the Department of Transportation and Urban Development. The DTUD, or "Deetad," is the main executive department responsible for maintaining existing public infrastructure such as roads, highways, railways, parks, and other public spaces, as well as crafting and enforcing policies that help in the maintenance and sustainable expansion of such public infrastructure.

The department has seven bureaus, two of which are newly-minted: the Bureau of Public Spaces, which handles the maintenance and the possible expansion of parks, libraries, plazas, and other public spaces; the Bureau of Housing Development which, from its title, is concerned with the sustainable and development of low-cost, high-quality housing for all, the Bureau of Bikeways and Roads, which concerns itself with the maintenance of the city-state's roads, highways, and bike paths; the Bureau of Public Transportation, which handles the city's fleet of buses, jeepneys, and other forms of public transportation; the Bureau of Railways, which handles the city's newly created railway that encircles the city, as well as the possible future expansion of new railroads as well as the development of possible tramways; the Bureau of Waterway Transportation, which deals with the ferries and bridges that criss-cross the country's rivers and streams; and the Bureau of Aviation, which handles the city's small fleet of civilian aircraft, and the one small airport of the city, the Kapitan Moy Airport.

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