"...as the planes climbed high into the night
to light the sacrificial rite
I saw Satan laughing with delight
the day the music died..."
-- Don McLean, "American Pie"
The mission of the Federation's nuclear arsenal is to ensure by its existence that (1) The Federation of Mount Shavano will maintain her independence and (2) The nuclear arsenal will never have to be used. This is based on the traditional principle of Mutually Assured Destruction.
The exact number, range, and capability of the Federation's nuclear arsenal is classified, with the only "real" information available being the official government position that it is "more than adequate". Third party estimates based on military expenditures (and known factors, such as the number of SSBNs in commission) conclude that it is adequate to take any conceivable first strike and still have enough firepower to glass any nation on the face of the Earth. Some information about delivery systems is known.
The Federation is known to have thousands of these in remote locations within her borders. Some locations are known, although it is also well known that some are not. Most are located in clusters in either the plains states or mountain regions; non-governmental estimates conclude than 10-40% of all Nature Preserves (a sub-category of national parks that are off limits to personnel unauthorized by the government; usually scientists and state wildlife personnel only in those used for their official purpose) host military silo complexes.
All publicly known silos are hardened against local blast effects - including nuclear near misses and EMPs - and are designed to require a direct hit from a "bunker buster" style munition to take off-line. The (believed) current most common missile type is the Reciprocity VII, a two-stage ICBM capable of delivering a payload anywhere on earth.
Any aircraft of the FRAF capable of carrying conventional medium-to-heavy bombs or missiles is also capable of carrying nuclear missiles or bombs. These range from tactical to strategic in warhead size.
As noted in the naval section, the Federation has a large force of SSBNs, each carrying Reciprocity VIIs ICBMs. These are of equivalent warhead size to their land-based brethren and are also capable of hitting anywhere on the planet. The missiles themselves are, however, somewhat smaller and more expensive.
Most Federation naval vessels on deployment, including all carrier groups, have approximately 5% of their arsenal space devoted to nuclear cruise missiles. These are never to be used except when authorized from the highest levels of the government or in the event any enemy forces uses WMDs against the FN.
There are persistent rumors of nuclear weapons cached at the Federation's moon base, either Reciprocity VIIs or a "Reciprocity VIII", which is usually ascribed comically exaggerated capabilities. Exactly why the Federation would need missiles here is usually not explained.