by Max Barry

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Kroraini Language (WIP)

Kroraini
क्रोरैञे कन्त्वो
Kroraiñe kantvo

Kuchean (Old Kroraini) in Brahmi Script

Pronunciation:

kroˈræːɲɛ ˈkəntʋo

Native to:

Kroraine

Ethnicity:

Kroraini

Native speakers:

~15-16 million

Language family:

Indo-European
• Tocharian
• • Kroraini

Early forms:

Proto-Tocharian
• Old West Tocharian
• • Kuchean
• • • Early Modern Kroraini

Writing system:

Devanagari
Latin script

Languages

Official in:

Kroraine

Regulated by:

Institute of Kroraini Linguistics

The Kroraini language (Kroraini: क्रोरैञे कन्त्वो Kroraiñe kantvo (/kroˈræːɲɛ ˈkəntʋo/)) is an Indo-European with between 15 and 16 million speakers spoken primarily by the Kroraini people. Significant communities of Kroraini speakers are located in China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and various other countries have Kroraini-speaking expatriate communities. Kroraini is an official language of The Democratic Republic of Kroraine.

Kroraini represents what is possibly the last extant member of an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, the Tocharian languages. It is of interest to linguists since it falls on the centum side of the centum-satem isogloss, which contradicts the previously held assumption that the isogloss was the result of an east-west phylogenetic division within Indo-European.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. History
3. Classification
- 3.1 Dialects
4. Status
5. Phonology
- 5.1 Vowels
- 5.2 Consonants
6. Orthography
7. Grammar
- 7.1 Morphology
- 7.1.1 Nominals
- 7.1.2 Verbs
- 7.1.3 Pronouns
- 7.2 Syntax


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History




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Classification


Dialects

Various classifications of Kroraini dialects have been proposed through time. Today, however, it is widely accepted that there are three major dialect groups. This was originally introduced by E. R. Tenishev, but has since been modified by other linguists like M. Osmanov, though the original classification by Tenishev remains the most widely accepted.

The classification by E. R. Tenishev can be seen below:

  • CENTRAL

    • Dialect of Turpan

    • Dialect of Kuca

    • Dialect of Aksu

    • Dialect of Kashgar

    • Dialect of Yarkand

  • SOUTHERN

    • Dialect of Khotan

  • EASTERN

    • Dialect of Lop Nur

A somewhat modified and more detailed classification by R. F. Hahn and M. Osmanov can be seen below, including northern dialects:

  • CENTRAL

    • Northern

      • Dialect of Ärämci

      • Dialect of Yiniṅ

      • Dialect of Taranci

      • Dialect of Turpan

      • Dialect of Kumul

    • Southern

      • Dialect of Kashgar

      • Dialect of Dolan

      • Dialect of Artuś

      • Dialect of Tarim

      • Dialect of Mughal

      • Dialect of Kuca

    • Dialect of Yarkand

    • Dialect of Aksu

  • SOUTHERN

    • Branch #1

      • Dialect of Piśān

    • Branch #2

      • Dialect of Ece

      • Dialect of Moyu

    • Branch #3

      • Dialect of Keriya

      • Dialect of Niya

      • Dialect of Cärcana

    • Dialect of Khotan

  • EASTERN

    • Dialect of Lop Nur

The Central dialects form the basis of the Standard Kroraini language, and are spoken by about 90% of all Kroraini-speakers.

Southern dialects, colloquially known as Saka, uniquely display the development of retroflex consonants and phonemic aspirates, possibly due to the influence of Indo-Aryan and Eastern Iranian languages. Saka, an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the southwestern corner of the Tarim basin prior to the expansion of Kroraini, had developed both retroflex consonants and phonemic aspiration in stops; this is highly likely to have influenced the development of the southern Kroraini dialects as the local Saka-speakers adopted the Kroraini language over several generations.


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Status




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Phonology




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Orthography


Vowels

The vowels and their arrangements are as follows in the table:

Arranged with the vowels are two consonantal diacritics: the final homorganic nasal anusvāra ं ṃ and the final fricative visarga ः ḥ. While in Indo-Aryan languages the anusvāra represents a phoneme that varies between nasal stops, nasalised vowels, or nasalised semivowels, it always represents a nasal stop that is homorganic to whatever consonant it precedes; if it precedes no consonant, its phonetic value is /n/.

The avagraha (ऽ) is not used in Kroraini.

The syllabic consonats ṛ, ṝ, ḷ, and ḹ are specific to Sanskrit loanwords or sanksritised words from Indic languages, and are not used in native Kroraini words.

The additional vowels ॲ/ऍ and ऑ represent the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ which is not found in Indo-Aryan languages. They are both written as Ä ä in Latin script, and are pronounced identically.

Consonants

The table below shows the consonant letters in combination with the inherent vowel a, as well as their usual arrangement. To the right of the Devanagari letter, the standard Kroraini Latin transcription is shown with the addition of the inherent vowel.

Despite the presence of letters for both aspirated and unaspirated plosives, this distinction is not upheld by most speakers except in southwestern (so-called Saka) dialects. Retroflex plosives are also pronounced as simple dentals by all but the same Saka-dialect-speakers. The retroflex nasal is almost universally realised as a simple /n/.

Ligatures, also known as conjunct consonants, are very common, though most are noncompulsory. There are two exceptions:

  • ल्य​ (ly) — represents the palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/

  • त्स​ (ts) — represents the sibilant coronal affricate /ts͡/

Grammar


Morphology

Nominals

Kroraini has 3 grammatical genders: the Masculine, the Feminine, and the Neuter or Alternating gender. There is some debate as to whether the Neuter or Alternating should be considered a separate grammatical gender, as it takes masculine agreement in the singular and feminine agreement in the plural (hence the designation Alternating).

Kroraini nouns and adjectives decline for singular, dual, and plural numbers. The dual is rarely used except for objects that naturally occur in pairs, such as klautso (ear) vs. klautsane (pair of ears) vs. klautsi (ears). There also exists a numerative suffix -aiventa which can modify either the dual or the plural: klautsanaiventa (several pairs of ears) vs. klautsaiventa (several ears).

Nouns can inflect based upon nine cases, but only three of these are morphologically significant: the nominative, the genitive, and the oblique. The remaining cases are agglutinative, formed with suffixes added to the oblique form of a noun in either the singular, dual, or plural, and only to the last noun in a phrase.

NEUTER NOUNS fall into five categories based on how they form the plural.

    -R/-Ra class neuters end in a liquid consonant or nasal in the singular, and add -a to the end to form the plural (for example: pikul > pikvala "year > years". Note in this example that the u in pikul is a reduced form of an underlying /ʷə/ and that it reverts to its full form when the stress necessarily shifts to the second syllable).
    -ə/-әwa class neuters end in either an unstressed vowel or, much more commonly, a consonant. These neuters add -wa to the end to form the plural (for example: ost/ostu > ostva/ostuva "house > houses").
    -ə/-әna class neuters end in either an unstressed vowel or a consonant. These neuters add -(a)na to the end to form the plural (for example: ṣarm > ṣärmana "reason > reasons").
    -ə/-әnma class neuters end in either an unstressed vowel or a consonant. These neuters add -(a)nma to the end to form the plural (for example: yoktsi > yoktsanma "drink > drinks").
    -V/-Vnta class neuters end in unreduced vowels and add -nta to the end to form the plural (for example: palsko > palskonta "thought > thoughts").

MASCULINE NOUNS fall into four categories based on how they form the plural.

    -e/-ʲi class masculines end in -e and form their plural by changing the final -e to -i, palatising the preceding consonant (for example: kerte > kerci "sword > swords").
    -e/-әy class masculines end in -e and form their plural by changing the final -e to -i with no palatisation of the preceding consonant (for example: meñe > meñi "month > months"). Nouns in this class also drop the final -e in the oblique and vocative cases.
    -o/-a class masculines end in -o and form their plural by changing the final -o to -a (for example: kantvo > kantva "language > languages"). Nouns in this class also change the final -o to -a in the oblique and vocative cases.
    -ə/-i class masculines end in either an unstressed vowel or, much more commonly, a consonant. These neuters change the final -ə to -i to form the plural.

FEMININE NOUNS fall into three categories based on how they form the plural.

    -(iy)e/-әy class feminines end in -e or -iye and form their plural by changing the final -e/-iye to -i (for example: kälymiye > kalymi "direction > directions").
    -a/-oy class feminines end in -a and form their plural by changing the final -a to -oy (for example: śana > śanoy/śnoy "woman > women"). Nouns in this class also change the final -a to -o in the oblique and vocative cases.
    -o/-aiñ class feminines end in -o and form their plural by changing the final -o to -aiñ (for example: pyāpyo > pyapyaiñ "flower > flowers"). Nouns in this class also change the final -o to -ai in the oblique and vocative cases.

R-STEM NOUNS form a separate class and can be either masculine or feminine based on natural gender. Only 5 R-stems exist: pācer ("father"), mācer ("mother"), tkācer ("daughter"), and procer ("brother"). A sample paradigm would be:

    Nominative: pācer (sg); pācera (pl)
    Genitive pātri (sg); pateraṃtsi (pl)
    Oblique pātär (sg); patäräṃ (pl)

Verbs

Syntax

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