by Max Barry

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Kalosian orthography (alphabet + pronunciation)

This section has been updated to reflect changes in the 2017 Reformation of the Kalosian Language.

There are 27 letters in the Kalosian alphabet, written below with their corresponding pronunciation. The letters C, H, Q, X, and Y are not part of the proper Kalosian alphabet and are only used in loanwords and foreign names, sometimes including nation names.

Aa-/a/, "ah" in English, ex. "mar" [maːr] (sea)
Bb-/b/, "b" in English, ex. "bark" [ˈbaːrkǝ] (boat)
Dd-/d/, "d" in English, ex. "destinu" [desˈtiːnu] (destiny)
Ee-/e/ or /ɛ/, "eh" in English, ex. "stel" [ˈstɛːlǝ] (star)
-/ə/, known as a schwa in English, ex. "n" [nə] (not)
Ff-/f/, "f" in English, ex. "far" [ˈfaːrǝ] (to do)
Gg-/g/, known as a hard "g" in English
Ǧǧ-/dʒ/, "j" in English, ex. "ǧoku" [ˈdʒoːku] (game)
Ii-/i/ or /ɪ/, both "i" in English
Jj-/j/, "y" in English, ex. "ja" [ja] (I)
Kk-/k/, "k" in English
Ll-/l/, "l" in English
Ľľ-/ʎ/, "lh" in Portuguese, "gl" in Italian, ex. "oľar" [oʎˈaːrǝ] (to forget)
Mm-/m/, "m" in English
Nn-/n/, "n" in English
-/ɲ/, "" in Spanish, ex. "monta" [monˈtaːɲə] (mountain)
Oo-/o/, "o" in English, ex. "koru" [ˈkoːru] (heart)
Pp-/p/, "p" in English, ex. "punto" [ˈpunto] (score)
Rr-/r/, known as a trilled or rolled "r" in English
Ss-/s/, "s" in English
-/ʃ/, "sh" in English, ex. "oanu" [oˈʃaːnu] (ocean)
Tt-/t/, "t" in English
Ťť - /tʃ/, "ch" in English, ex. "ťelu" [ˈtʃeːlu] (sky)
Uu-/u/, "u" or "oo" in English, ex. "tudo" [ˈtudo] (all)
Vv-/v/, "v" in English, ex. "vel" [ˈveːlǝ] (sail)
Ww-/w/, "w" in English
Zz-/z/, "z" in English
-/ʒ/, "zh" in English, "j" in French, ex. "lu" [ˈluːʒǝ] (light)

T t-/tʃ/, used as an alternative to Ťť
Stress lies on the penultimate syllable if the word ends with an -u or - (which will be in most cases); a masculine noun that ends with -o instead may also follow this rule if the stressed vowel is -u-
Ľľ (L with a caron) is NOT the same as an L with an apostrophe (usually a contraction of the definite article), and also NEVER occurs at the beginning of a word
Any of the consonants with diacritics can alternatively be spelled as its base letter + j (e.g. -> sj), while can alternatively be written as regular Ee