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Genetic studies suggest that the Abo-abuhan were among the first ethnic groups to migrate out of Africa to Hintuwan. Over the course of thousands of years, they were followed by successive waves of migratory peoples via land bridges which were exposed during the Ice Age. This initial diaspora adopted animistic faiths and established village-polities known as Barangays.
In 111 BCE, Ancient Doravo conquered modern-day Tunduk in Luhan and ruled through a series of vassal-states until the independent Batara Dynasty emerged in 100 CE and established the Kedatuan Hintuwan. Subsequently, Hintuwan conquered and assimilated most of its rival polities in Cabalagdag, Kemarak, and Sarikula while expanding its territory into the nearby Ivolshok archipelago.
In 1134, a succession crisis struck the Batara Dynasty as a result of several assassinations orchestrated by Panhaian separatists. This led to the incitement of the Mok Wars (also known as the Bataran Restoration), wherein the Mok Dynasty established by the military junta of Sultan Alimuddin I of Clan Mok battled the pretender Batara Restoration Dynasty led by Lakan Suko IV of Clan Batara and the Council of the Ten Clans (Hintuwanese: Kesampuhan, lit. "rule of the Ten"). Suko Batara IV would himself die without an heir in 1154, leaving the Datu of the Kesampuhan to organize Hintuwan into a confederate oligarchy whereby descendants of the Kesampuhan would elect from among themselves a Pinuno every 3 harvest seasons in an arrangement known as the Kepulungan, sometimes referred to by historians as the Synod of Aklatan.
Europeans began settling islands in the Southern Sea as early as the 16th century, however it was the conquistador Heinrich Brandão's capture of Haijing in 1762 which marked the beginning of Hintuwan's formal colonization under the banner of The Glorious Empire of Pordhes. The confiscation of the Kesampuhan's feudal possessions and the dismantlement of the Kepulungan system in 1772 led to the royal clans' gradual spiral into obscurity and the Hintuwani archipelago became a commercial holding of the Pordhesian Western Isles Company for 134 years. During this time, Roman Catholicism became the dominant religion, Haijing became a hub of Southern Sea trade, and the Lan Guó wilderness was settled.
In 1904, the Hintuwani Revolution was launched against Pordhesian rule, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Hintuwan. Hintuwani independence would be short-lived as the ensuing Hintuwani-Doraltic War ended with Dormill and Stiura establishing a protectorate to rule over the country. In 1943, as part of an effort to appease decades of protracted resistance by Hintuwani revolutionaries, Dormill and Stiura granted phony independence to the Second Republic of Hintuwan however it was burdened by socioeconomic problems and largely seen by most Hintuwani citizens as nothing more than a Doraltic satellite state. This resentment culminated in the Hintuwani Civil War which divided the country between the Dormill and Stiura-backed Second Republic with the support of several ultracapitalist and fraternalist volunteers versus a broad coalition of left-wing, royalist, and liberal forces supported by socialist and communist volunteers which formed the Commonwealth of Hintuwan. Upon Commonwealth victory and subsequent recognition by an overwhelming number of member-states in the World Assembly, Hintuwan reunified as a fully-independent democratic state on July 2nd, 1955. On August 11th of the same year, the Restoration of Titles Act was ratified by the Commonwealth's parliament - organizing Hintuwan into a "crowned republic" whereby the head of the Luntian Clan, the most legitimate cadet branch of one of the last surviving Kesampuhan clans, would rule as a constitutional monarch who "rules but does not govern".
Since then, Hintuwan has often had a tumultuous experience with democratic rights, which were briefly suspended in 1972 by the right-wing reactionary Cagalanganista dictatorship and then reinstated by a Royalist-Liberal coalition by a largely bloodless popular uprising known as the Green Revolution of 1986.
Hintuwan is an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, and has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. Hintuwan's position as an island country close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity.
Contemporary issues being faced by Hintuwan include - among other things - nepotism in government, a track record of police brutality, and an ongoing Islamist insurgency.
The first known usage of the term "Hintuwan" comes from the earliest preserved copperplates issued by the first Bataran Dynasty of the Kedatuan Hintuwan as a means of relaying orders and keeping records. It is commonly accepted that the term's close relation to the word hintuan, still meaning "place of stoppage" or "place of rest" in modern Hintuwanese, references the region's long history as a trading outpost for polities in the Southern Sea even before the arrival of colonial powers.
One of Hintuwan's most prominent topographical features is the Hangzuishan Mountain Range, which acts as a natural barrier against seasonal rains that enter Hintuwan's area of responsibility through the Hintuwan Sea. South of the Sierra Sihadong, between the provinces of Tasikrong and Matayumtum, lies the Mahadit Rainforest which plays a vital role in preserving Luhan island's natural ecosystem and also helps in absorbing floods before they reach Hintuwan's lowland coastal cities.
The highest mountain in Hintuwan is Mount Hsikareik. It measures up to 4,884 meters above sea level and is located on the Panhaian island of Kemarak. Running East of the archipelago in the Hintuwan Sea lies the Hintuwani Trench which extends 10,540 meters below sea level at the Parasaligan Depth. The longest river in Hintuwan is the Khmaumonorom River which flows from rainfall in the Hangzuishan and measures around 320 kilometers.
Hintuwan has two active volcanoes: Mount Suko Batara and Mount Macaraeg. As such, the country experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. Around five earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The eruption of Mount Macareg in June 1991 was the largest terrestrial eruption of the Southern Sea in the 20th century.
As a result of its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity, Hintuwan possesses sizeable mineral deposits of gold, copper, chromite, nickel, and zinc. Unfortunately, a lack of law enforcement, poor economic management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster, have resulted in many of these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.
Hintuwan has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season or summer from March to May; a rainy season from June to November; and a cool dry season from December to February. The Southwest Monsoon lasts from May to October, and the Northeast Monsoon from November to April. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F). The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). Due to Hintuwan's relatively compact size, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor in considering temperature, and temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range as that which would be found on the Hintuwani mainland. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Columba - one of Hintuwan's many Pordhesian Era resort-towns - at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination for vacationing Hintuwanis to retreat to during hot summers. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous Eastern coastal section of Panhai but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of Hintuwan's most sheltered valleys.
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, the Hintuwani islands experience 15–20 typhoons annually from July to October, with around nineteen typhoons entering the Hintuwani area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. The wettest recorded typhoon to hit Hintuwan dropped 2,210 millimeters (87 in) in Kemarak from July 14 to 18, 1911. The Hintuwani archipelago is highly exposed to climate change and is among the most vulnerable to climate change risks.
Hintuwan is a megadiverse country. Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout Hintuwan: dipterocarp, beach forest, pine forest, molave forest, lower montane forest, upper montane or mossy forest, mangroves, and ultrabasic forest. Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in Hintuwan - forest cover has declined from once covering more than 70% of Hintuwan's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.
Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in Hintuwan including over 100 mammal species and 243 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. Hintuwan has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for Hintuwan has risen and will likely continue to rise as national funding for environmental conservation increases.
The total number of corals and marine fish species in Hintuwan was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continue. Parts of Hintuwan's marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world.
Hintuwan's national animal is the Carabao, a domestic swamp-type water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) which plays a key role in many ancient traditional Hintuwani agricultural methods as animal laborers. They are well adapted to a hot, humid tropical climates and are largely herbivorous. Hintuwan boasts the highest concentration of carabaos anywhere else in the world, which is why it has sometimes been called "the kingdom which carabao built". The buffalo is considered an important national symbol of Hintuwan that represents the hardworkingness of Hintuwanis, and it adorns the nation's coat of arms.
Jasminum panginoan, is a shrub in the jasmine genus with small fragrant red flowers known locally as Tagugay - which is considered to be Hintuwan's national flower. It was discovered by a Dormill-Stiuran scientist in 1914, and is named after Dayang Panginoan IV of Clan Luntian (the current Lakan's great grandmother). It too is featured on Hintuwan's coat of arms and represents the blood of Hintuwani martyrs.
Hintuwan has eight main overarching administrative subdivisions called Governorates (Hintuwanese: Gobernación), each administered on a local executive level by a Governor. There are 29 provinces (Hintuwanese: Lalawigan) between these Governorates.
Each Governorate is allocated 15 seats (with the exclusion of the National Capital Governorate, which is allocated an additional 5 seats) for Members of Parliament (MPs) in the national legislature whose representatives are elected from any province within each respective Governorate's constituency.
The following tables list Hintuwan's Governorates based on their location among the country's three non-administrative geographical subdivisions. It also lists each Governorate's population density and percentage of contribution to the national GDP.
Estimated Population Density
Seats in the Kapulungang Bayan
National Capital Governorate
Governorate of Archipelagic Mangin
Governorate of Cabalagdag
Seats in the Kapulungang Bayan
Governorate of Peninsular Gambang
Governorate of Kemarak
Kemarak del Norte
Governorate of Sarikula
Seats in the Kapulungang Bayan
Governorate of San Bernardino
General Macalinao City
San Bernardino Oriental
Governorate of La Paz
The 1986 constitution of the Commonwealth of Hintuwan mandates that elections should be held for government officials at the national, provincial, and local levels. The constitution guarantees that any citizen of the Commonwealth may file candidacy for such positions if they so choose - there is no age limit, nor restrictions based on race or sexual orientation. All members of the national legislature, the Kapulungang Bayan (lit. "Assembly of the Nation"), are directly elected by the people of each province.
There are many other elected offices at the provincial and local levels, with each province having at least one elected governor and elected provincial council. Elected offices on a local level consist of leadership positions in counties, cities, towns, townships, boroughs, and villages; as well as for special districts and school districts which may transcend county and municipal boundaries.
According to the 1955 Restoration of Titles Act, the eldest of the Luntian royal family is legally recognized as the country's sovereign and acts as head of state of Hintuwan up until their death or abdication (with the title being passed on hereditarily, in turn, via the eldest of the head's heirs). Children of the sovereign are known as prinsepe if male, and dayang-dayang if female.
The Luntian Clan came into power by being legally recognized as the most legitimate from among the cadet branches of the Marabay Clan, the last traceable family to have once held a seat on the Kesampuhan. The titles of the Hintuwani monarchy are entirely ceremonial, more so than even other constitutional monarchies: government stipends for the royal family were suspended by the Cagalanganistas in 1972 and were never restored, while most of the Luntian Clan's ancestral holdings - including the Haijing Palatial Tower - though inhabited by its members, are registered national heritage sites licensed and owned by the government. Instead of relying on public funds to support themselves, the Luntian Royal Family commands significant financial influence through a series of industrial monopolies which they acquired during the Doraltic colonial era. In practice, the Lakan's primary responsibility as Head of State consists of maintaining cordial relations with other countries that it has dynastic ties with as well as upholding the elected Hintuwani government's foreign policy abroad. The Lakan acts as Hintuawan's top diplomat and negotiator - the public persona who officially embodies the state in its unity and legitimacy.
The President of the Commonwealth is the head of government of Hintuwan, and is determined from among the existing presidential candidates by the Kapulungang Bayan once every 7 years. The 1986 constitution directs each province of the Commonwealth to appoint a quantity of electors equal to that province's delegation to the Kapulungang Bayan. The same clause empowers each provincial council to determine the manner by which that province's electors are chosen but prohibits national office holders from being named electors. Following the national presidential election day each province selects its electors according to its local ordinances. After a popular election, the provinces then identify and record their appointed electors in a Certificate of Ascertainment, those appointed electors then meet in their respective jurisdictions and produce a Certificate of Vote, for their candidate; both certificates are then sent to the Kapulungang Bayan to be opened and votes counted.
The Commonwealth President's duty is to lead the executive branch of the Hintuwani government and sign into law bills that have been voted-upon by the Kapulungang Bayan. He is also the commander-in-chief of the Commonwealth Army of Hintuwan.
This table lists the current members of Hintuwan's executive cabinet. All of these positions are appointed by the President and appointees hold life tenure unless dismissed by the President. Typically, when a President starts their term they select a Vice President from among their chosen Ministers. When the President dies, the Vice President succeeds them. In the event that both the President and the Vice President are unable to assume their positions, the cabinet holds an emergency session to vote on an interim president from among themselves.
Henry Theodore Bulalacao
Atty. Tapakgan Cagaluyong
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister of Defence
Gen. (ret.) Parasaligan Daclan
Minister of the Interior (Vice President)
Minister of National Intelligence
Minister of Health
Minister of Science
Minister of Industrial Development
Minister of Natural Resources
Minister of Culture
The Kapulungang Bayan is currently dominated by the self-proclaimed "conservative-nationalist-socialist" All-Hintuwani Forward Bloc (AHFB), which began to gain traction after the Royalist-Liberal coalition fractured in the early 2000s. The AHFB claims that it is mostly composed of MPs from both the Liberal and Royalist parties who became discontent with the neoliberal centre-right status quo in the aftermath of the Green Revolution against the Cagalanganistas. While some describe the AHFB as centre-left for advocating policies such as universal healthcare and raising the minimum wage for blue-collar workers, it has also acted as a coalition against the advancement of pro-LGBTQ+, pro-choice, and Indigenous People's (IP) rights bills. Controversially, the AHFB also advocates for a federal parliamentary system of government, which would require the conduction of a constitutional convention in order to implement. The firebrand Chairman of the AHFB, Seferino Bantug - a former action movie star - refers to his ideology as "Enlightened Nationalism", believes in "Hintuwan for the Hintuwanis", and wants the "speedy dispensation of justice and economic prosperity for all".
The Trade Union Congress of Hintuwan (TUCH), a self-proclaimed social democratic party, also holds considerable influence on Hintuwan's legislative affairs and acts as an alliance of MPs with specific advocacies that cater to, are propagated, and funded by special interest groups. It originally began as a party of unions which advocated for workers' rights that eventually integrated the Hintuwani Green Party (HGP) as well as major Hintuwani sectoral organizations such as the Alliance of Hintuwani Educators (AHE), the General Assembly for Women's Autonomy, Integrity, and Leadership (GAWAIL), Young Hintuwanis Movement (YHM), and National League of Indigenous Peoples (NLIP). Though itself not officially a socialist or communist party, the TUCH still maintains official ties with organizations that are seen as "legal fronts" of the Communist Party of Hintuwan (CPH) such as the Kilusang Magbubukid ng Hintuwan (KHM, English: Farmers' Movement of Hintuwan) and the Hintuwani Democratic Front (HDF).
The smallest elected political party in the Kapulungang Bayan is the Royalist Party of Hintuwan (RPH). It was founded in 1955 to represent the views of the Hintuwani aristocracy and later attracted conservatives who were dissatisfied with the republican faction's anti-monarchy views. In 1974, the royalists formed a filibuster pact with the Liberal Party of Hintuwan (LPH) in protest against the reigning Cagalanganistas and MPs from both parties were subsequently banned from the Kapulungang Bayan. It was re-founded in 1986 as it exists in its current state, and continues to advocate for policies such as national economic self-reliance, secularism, gun control, and stronger cooperation between the executive and legislative branches of government.
The judiciary in Hintuwan is divided by the constitution into the Supreme Court and its subordinate courts: the Court of Appeals (divided into the Regional Trial Courts and the Sharia High Court) and the Court of Tax Appeals. The Regional Trial Courts are subdivided further into the Metropolitan Trial Courts, the Municipal Trial Courts, and the Municipal Circuit Trial Courts. The Sharia High Court subdivides into various Sharia District Courts, which itself delegates proceedings to various Sharia Circuit Courts - and all three only operate in parts of the Muslim-majority Hintuwani region of Panhai.
The Office of the Attorney General provides checks and balances for the entire judicial system by possessing administrative autonomy designed to prosecute offenders, investigate crimes, review judicial processes and accuse penal law infractions against judges and courts of justice. An investigative process is initiated either by the institutions' own initiative or after a denouncer has made authorities aware of the case in a police station or in a Quick Reaction Unit (QRU) of the Attorney General's Office. The Supreme Court elects the Attorney General every 3 years by meeting a quorum of 5 out of 7 possible votes from its presiding justices (i.e. reaching a two-thirds majority).
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Presiding Justice of the Court of Tax Appeals
Presiding Justice of the Court of Appeals
Presiding Justice of the Sharia High Court
Taalib bin Muammar
Rambo Mozart Nankme
Hintuwan practices the common law legal system, where the decisions of higher courts constitute binding precedent upon courts of equal or lower status within their jurisdiction, as opposed to the civil law legal system. Hintuwan also utilizes a jury system, in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact. It is distinguished from a bench trial in which a judge or panel of judges makes all decisions.
Hintuwan is a member of the the World Assembly (WA). Hintuwan recognizes collective security as a legitimate means of protecting its national interests by abiding by a pact of mutual defense with its fellow member-states in the Kalisight Treaty Organization (KTO), and maintaining observer status in the Capitalist International Alliance (CAPINTERN).
Hintuwan has deep economic ties with The Blue Islands of Corindia covering economics, security, and people-to-people relations while historical and cultural ties continue to affect its relations with The Glorious Empire of Pordhes and The United Republics of Dormill and Stiura. Hyukai owns the largest profit margin for civillian electronics and military contracts in Hintuwan, while The Free Kingdom of Allanea is its biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance and has funded major landmark projects in the country such as the 50 million NDD Reichsburg Bridge which connects the Hintuwani city of Mijung on the island of Luhan to the island of Mangin.
Hintuwan claims the region of Dacia in the Southern Sea and the island of Sye in the Kavju Sea, which overlap claims by Doravo. Hintuwan claims dominionship over the migratory Kiray-a sea-gypsies who settled the North of Hintuwan from Dacia some 1000 years ago. Since Hintuwan gained independence in 1946, tensions over these territories have remained constantly high, however Hintuwan has never militarily pressed for control over the region.
A limited national draft has existed in Hintuwan since January 1st, 2005. Every male or female between 18-25 years of age may be called on to serve in the military, coast guard, or military police for 8-10 months. The conscription can be postponed for those who are attending university. Conscientious objection is accepted by the Commonwealth Army and civilian alternatives to military service exist primarily through its disaster relief task force wing, as well as in the form of medic, engineer, and other military auxiliary roles. According to the Ministry of Defense, the limited draft has never been needed to be imposed harshly except in times of national crisis due to high rates of citizen enthusiasm for the prospects of army voluntarism. This enthusiasm is fueled by the generous multi-sectoral benefits provided by the Hintuwani government to both veterans and active service personnel of the Commonwealth Army alike.
Order of Battle
Since the year 2000 the Commonwealth Army has been restructured into four independent 16,250-man Joint Task Forces or JTFs operating around 20 Infantry Battalions each, commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel, and are designated specific military sectors ("Joint Task Force Military Zones", or JTFMZs) throughout the country in which they are tasked with accomplishing specific objectives.
Air Groups of the CAFH are split between the overarching JTF commands of their assigned JTFMZs, and naval operations command.
Name of Joint Task Force (JTF)
Designated Joint Task Force Military Zone (JTFMZ)
Primary Deployment Objective
JTF No. 1, "North" (Hilaga)
CAFH Air Group No. 43 "Mata ng Lakan"
Maintain the airspace sovereignty of the area above and around the city of Haijing. Remain in a condition to mobilize against civil threats in the event of domestic escalation.
JTF No. 2, "East" (Silangan)
CAFH Air Group No. 44 "Diwata"
Lead counterinsurgency efforts against terrorist insurrection in Panhai and rapidly respond to threats against national security in the region.
JTF No. 3, "Warden" (Tagapagbantay)
CAFH Air Group No. 47 "Nephilim"
Garrison coastal military bases and ports around the country, and provide heavy material support to the first responder CNH Coast Guard Command (CNH-CGC) when they engage in anti-piracy combat operations.
JTF No. 4, "Shadow" (Anino)
JTFMZ "Southern Seas"
CAFH Air Group No. 49 "Aguila"
Regularly conduct training drills in conjunction with the Navy in the Southern Seas, and remain in combat ready condition indefinitely to mobilize in the event of military escalation with neighbouring states (cold start doctrine).
Outside of the regular JTF command structure, the Commonwealth Army also maintains 5 divisions called the Strategic Combat Reserve (SCR) typically only mobilized to accomplish missions outside of the country (foreign intervention), during times of diplomatic escalation (in which case dormant SCR divisions are sometimes re-activated from the Commonwealth Army's military reserve in anticipation of a potential conflict), or to perform high-intensity domestic peacekeeping roles auxillary to JTF command. Each of these divisions is commanded by a Major-General and is composed of roughly 6,500-10,000 men. Divisions delineate further down into battalions. Although authorized to contain some 600 soldiers, battalions in the CGFH typically have 500 troops or fewer assigned. Battalions in the CGFH are typically implemented into several brigades. All brigades operate at least one engineer, communications, and logistic support company.
When the SCR was first formed during the Cold War, each of its divisions was initially composed of provisional reserve battalions from the now-defunct Commonwealth Home Guard of Hintuwan (CHGH) and named after the province in which its personnel were drafted. Official use of this designation system was officially dropped in the year 2000, since most SCR divisions are now composed of people from all around the country. However, some of these titles remain in use for ceremonial or commemorative purposes by the people who currently serve in the SCR.
The currently-active SCR Divisions of the Commonwealth Army include the following (dormant SCR Divisions not listed):
1st Hintuwani Infantry Division
Stationed at the Royal Military Academy of Hintuwan, in Haijing
11th "Sea Lions" Hintuwani Infantry Division
Stationed at Camp Cianwang, in Olonriñas
22nd "The Hellfightin' Hintuwanis" Hintuwani Infantry Division
Stationed at Camp Datu Machandauk, in San Bernardino Oriental
33rd Hintuwani Infantry Division
Assisting JTF No. 2, "East" (Silangan) in conducting Operation Crepusculum, using Camp Tabayang in Gambang as a Forward Operating Base (FOB)
44th "Kabalyero ni Ba'thala" (Knights of Ba'thala) Hintuwani Infantry Division
Stationed in Camp Dasmalacat, in Panginoan
Other military units that exist within the Commonwealth Army that operate outside of JTF Command and are subordinate directly to the Hintuwani Joint Chiefs of Staff include:
The Commonwealth Military Intelligence Committee (CMIC), an agency that conducts information collection and analysis operations to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions
The 1st-5th Special Operations Combat Brigades under the Commonwealth Commando Special Forces Unit (CCSFU) which consists of professional army volunteers specialized as commandos, paratroopers, mountain/arctic warfare experts, frogmen, snipers, and dog guides
The 60th Jungle Warfare Special Operations Battalion, recruited from local warrior tribes like the Kiray-a, Záchwa, and Hani-Hanis
The special boat detachments 1st-3rd Marinero Battalions equipped with tactical speed-patrol boats and perform the role of naval infantry auxiliaries
As of the year 2022, Hintuwan is still undergoing major military reforms in order to maximize its joint capability and inter-service unity of command.
The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be close to around 16.9 milllion as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census in 2015 conducted by the Hintuwani Statistics Authority. The nation experienced a 45% jump in total population between 1990 and 2000. The first official census in Hintuwan was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 1,567,685.
Most of the Hintuwani population lives on the island of Luhan, specifically the Tunduk capital region and its immediate neighbours. The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000–2010 period, and government attempts to reduce population growth have been a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Average life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.
There is substantial ethnic diversity in Hintuwan, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences. According to a 2010 census, 24.4% of Hintuwanis are Luhanon, 11.4% Panhaians, 9.9% Kemarakan, 8.8% Masangkayan, 8.4% Gambangan, 6.8% Kiray-a, 4% Azarconian, 0.2% Pordhesian and 26.0% are "others".
Abo-abuhan are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands. These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa, and were likely displaced by later waves of migration.
As of 2015, there was an estimated 45,000 to 60,000 Dormill-Stiurans from Dormill and Stiura living in Hintuwan as well as an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 ethnic Corindi from Corindia. The country also hosts an untold number of Doravan who have integrated well with the population, including descendants of escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who escaped persecution by Doravo and had been granted asylum in Hintuwan during the Pordhesian colonial era.
Standard Hintuwanese and Standard English are the official and national languages of Hintuwan. 63% of the country speak Standard Hintuwanese as their first language. Hintuwanese is itself merely a standardized version of Luhanese, spoken mainly in Tunduk. Both Hintuwanese and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time. The Hintuwani constitution provides for the promotion of Pordhesian and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis. Pordhesian, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Pordhesian loanwords are still present today in Hintuwani languages, while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Panhai.
Hintuwani Sign Language was recognized as the national sign language of Hintuwan when the National Sign Language Standardization Act was ratified on March 2nd, 2011 - specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.
The largest non-Catholic Christian church in Hintuwan is the Hintuwani Independent Church which has around 66,959 adherents. Protestants composed 9.13% of the population in 2015. The combined following of the Hintuwani Council of Evangelical Churches comes to 2.42% of the total population.
Only 5.57% of all Hintuwanis professed a devotion to Islam, a demographic skewed towards the Shīʿa school (97.8% vs other schools of Islam) and concentrated mostly on the Panhai archipelago (where 78.0% of all Hintuwani Muslims live).
According to the same 2015 census, 2.64% of the population belong to the independent Nontrinitarian Folk Catholic church known as the Kaharian ng Panginoon or KNP (English: Kingdom of the Lord). The KNP describes itself to be the one true church and the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus, whereby all other Christian churches are apostate. KNP believers claim that Jesus Christ did not die on the cross at Golgotha. Instead, a Hintuwani man named Daculug Duarte (alleged to be his brother), took his place on the cross, while Jesus escaped across the Southern Sea to Bacalan, in Lan Guó. Once in Hintuwan, Jesus changed his name to Augusto Dawud Batara and became a garlic farmer. In Hintuwan, Jesus allegedly married a peasant woman named Panginoan, with whom he fathered three children, all daughters. The eldest daughter supposedly married into Hintuwan's founding Batara Dynasty, which is claimed to hold a direct lineage to Jesus, evidenced by written accounts of their holding certain Middle Eastern-esque physical characteristics. After his death at an age exceeding 100, Jesus was said to have been interred into one of two grave mounds in Bacalan. A remnant of the crucified Daculug Duarte, typically thought to be a lock of hair, is allegedly buried in the other mound.
Leading exports of Hintuwan include semiconductors, natural gas, designer garments, copper products, plastic products, rice, tropical fruits, and alcoholic beverages (particularly rum). Hintuwan's massive service industries which include the tourism and business process outsourcing industries outweigh trade profits in the accumulation foreign capital, and have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for employment in the country.
The Central Bank of Hintuwan (Hintuwanese: Bangko Sentral ng Hintuwan) is responsible for developing and maintaining the value of the Hintuwani Piloncito (HNP), which serves as the nation's currency.
The Hintuwani government recognizes trade unions. The minimum wage in June 2020 was $800/month. In 2018, the agricultural sector employed 24.3%, and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP. The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP. The unemployment rate in Hintuwan was 2.59% at the beginning of 2022.
Remittances from overseas Hintuwani workers contribute significantly to Hintuwan's economy. In 2018 it was estimated that around 1.8 million Hintuwani people worked overseas. Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively. In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was $28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Tunduk – Haijing in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of other regions.
The travel and tourism sector contributed 10.6% of the country's GDP and provided 1,226,500 jobs in 2015. The vacation island of Boronsay, popular for its crystal-white beaches, was named as the top tourist destination in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. Hintuwan is a popular retirement destination for foreigners due to its tropical climate and relatively low cost of living.
The Ministry of Scientific Advancement is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in Hintuwan. Research organizations in the country include the Southern Sea Rice Research Institute (SSRI), which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques, as well as the Hintuwan Maritime Protection Organization (HMPO) - a government-subsidized thinktank dedicated to coming up with creative solutions to protect the rich marine life found in the country's national aquatic territories.
Hintuwan bought its first satellite known as the Mabuhay in 1996. In 2016, Hintuwan's first micro-satellite, Bahaghari-1 was launched aboard the Dormill-Stiuran Cygnus spacecraft. Up until Bahaghari-1's launch, the Hintuwani government had been availing services from foreign countries for satellite imagery. Following the aftermath of Typhoon Lai (known internationally as Typhoon Greta) in 2012, the Hintuwani government had to pay about 56 million HP for satellite imagery of an area affected by the typhoon dubbed as the "Urdamaylan Corridor". The HN-Microsat program that led to the development of the Bahaghari-1 was therefore seen as a small investment with huge benefits for the country.
There is significant cultural diversity across Hintuwan, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country. The cultures within Panhai developed in a particularly distinct manner, due to very limited degree of Pordhesian influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions. Despite this, a national identity emerged in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones.
One of the most visible Pordhesian legacies is the prevalence of Pordhesian names and surnames among Hintuwanis; a Pordhesian name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Pordhesian ancestry. This peculiarity came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Yannik Corte-Real, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Pordhesian nomenclature on the population. The names of many locations are also Pordhesian, or stem from Pordhesian roots and origins.
There is also substantial Dormill-Stiuran influence on modern Hintuwani culture. The common use of the English language is an example of the Dormill-Stiuran impact on Hintuwani society. It has contributed to the influence of Dormill-Stiuran pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Hintuwani's consumption of fast food and Dormill-Stiuran film and music. Dormill-Stiuran global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but some local fast-food chains have also emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.
As a general description, the distinct value system of Hintuwanis is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.
Hintuwani values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of Hiya, roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and Amor propio or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Hintuwanis.
Other elements of the Hintuwani value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.
Hintuwan possesses a rich tapestry of pre-colonial literature handed down from generation to generation through the Hintuwani people's oral and written traditions. The most popular prehistoric work of Hintuwani literature is the Biag ni Suko Batara (Tale of Suko Batara) which describes an exaggerated account of the founding of the Batara Dynasty and the Kedatuan Hintuwan. The tale, well-preserved by the Kesampuhan on several imperial copperplates recounts the revolt of the Doravan almirante (Admiral) Suko after being bestowed a vision by the Supreme Deity Ba'thala Maykapal that he was destined to unite the peoples of Luhan. He convinces his fellow admirals in the Doravan Empire who are of Hintuwani descent to rise up against Ancient Doravo and together they assemble a squadron of 10 ships. These ships are prayed to by Suko and blessed by Ba'thala Maykapal, who then enables him and his admirals to resist 1,000 Doravan imperial galleys. It ends with the coronation of Suko as Suko I Batara (having adopted the name of the Supreme Deity himself), and his reign is said to have been long and prosperous. Many Hintuwani nobles interpreted (or at least propagated the idea of) the Biag as evidence that Suko I Batara was an avatar of Ba'thala, and his descendants are thus children of the Supreme Deity. While the Batara Dynasty never explicitly confirmed this in known written accounts, historians believe that their silence on the matter was a way of mystifying their clan's origins and leaving the Kedatuan's establishing story open to local religious interpretations who in turn exaggerated the account even further.
Hintuwani cinema began at the end of the 19th century - moving pictures were first shown in Hintuwan on January 1, 1897. Cinema in Hintuwan made up around 20% of the domestic market during the second half of the 20th century. During the 21st century however, the industry has struggled to compete with larger budget foreign films.
Popular Hintuwan-produced blockbuster films typically exhibit one or more of three cardinal genres: romantic comedy (rom-com), action-adventure, and historical drama. Western knock-offs featuring Hintuwani frontier lifestyle, as well as gangster and crime films are a few of the most popular tropes in Hintuwani cinema. 3D animation is also becoming more and more popular among Hintuwani movie-goers, and Hintuwani animated films tend to delve into the theme of traditional and common Hintuwani "sense of going about things" or manner of coping with the life and environment of Hintuwan. Animation is also sometimes used as a vessel for introducing traditional Hintuwani mythic folklore or legendary stories to younger generations of mainstream audiences. Over the years, there have also been many films based on history or on historical figures that have not only captivated audiences with their powerful and enriching stories, but have also taken viewers back in time with their detailed costumes, sets, and atmosphere.
While the most successful Hintuwani movies are typically produced by a handful of the nation's top media companies, Hintuwan also possesses a diverse "indie film" industry. Independent Hintuwani cinema has existed for almost as long as commercialized cinema, but this type of cinema has not been recognized as much, and thus has few historical accounts. Many of the independent films show actual happenings in society using authentic voices of the people, but oftentimes, these films have been suppressed due to its revelations about social and political realities or marginalized due to its cinematography. These films also sometimes offer valuable historical content or perspectives that are omitted in mainstream Hintuwani cinema.
In 2015, Hintuwan had 125 television stations, 278 AM radio broadcast stations, 583 FM radio broadcast stations, 10 internet radio stations, 5 shortwave stations and 4 million newspapers in circulation. Hintuwani media mainly broadcasts in the Hintuwanese and English languages, although it has been noted that there is a growing trend of public broadcasters choosing to speak in English rather than Hintuwanese in recent years.
Major mass media companies in Hintuwan include:
HBS-PEC, based in Arankhio, Tunduk Province is Hintuwan's largest entertainment and media conglomerate in terms of revenue, operating income, net income, assets, equity, market capitalization, and number of employees. HBS-PEC was formed by the merger of Hintuwan Broadcasting System (HBS) with Panginoan Electronics Corporation (PEC). HBS-PEC mainly focuses on being a content company, which includes producing television programs, films and other entertainment contents and distributions. The company focuses on their own subsidiaries and divisions to produce and distribute shows and collaborating for partnerships with independent production companies and distributors to distribute their own contents.
WMA Network (World Media Arts or simply WMA) is a Hintuwani free-to-air television and radio network. It operates using funds from its parental subsidiary, Amorin-Leyton, LLC. The flagship television station of WMA is DZBB-TV (WMA-7 Haijing) which carries VHF Channel 7 (analog broadcast) with Channel 25 served as a permanent assigned digital frequency. The network operates across the Hintuwani archipelago through the WMA Regional TV department which has 5 originating stations and 48 relay stations nationwide. Its programming is also available outside Hintuwan through the Hintuwani paid television channels WMA Hintuwan TV, WMA Life TV and WMA News TV International which are available through satellite and cable TV systems worldwide. Since 2013, WMA has been testing digital terrestrial television broadcasts using the Hyukai standard ISDB-T, in select areas in Hintuwan.
Voice of Hintuwan Television Network (abbreviated VHTN) is the flagship state television broadcaster owned by the Commonwealth government of Hintuwan. As a government-run station, VHTN receives funding from the annual national budget as well as sales from blocktimers and advertisers, among others. VHTN also runs a Muslim-oriented digital television channel called Salaam TV. Generally, VHTN airs locally produced news and public affairs programs and documentaries, sports, public service, blocktime, and entertainment programs, in addition to foreign content coming from their counterpart in other The Western Isles countries.
Much of media ownership in Hintuwan is concentrated in the hands of prominent families and businesses. Consequently, some reports tend to be one-sided presentations favoring special interests. The privately-owned press also has sensationalist or otherwise populist tendencies at times.
Though major media companies are predominantly owned by moneyed and influential tycoons, researchers have noted that the advent of wider internet accessibility has enriched the free market of ideas in Hintuwan. Reputable online news publications, news portals, blog sites, and other online available resources have disrupted the readership of other giant news media companies in recent years.
Bagumbuwan (lit.: "New Moon"), sometimes called Lunar New Year or the Hintuwani Spring Festival, is one of the most important celebrations in Hintuwani culture and one of the country's national holidays. It celebrates the arrival of spring based on the Hintuwani calendar, which usually has the date falling in January or February of the Gregorian calendar. During this time, workers and students often have one week off and return their hometown to reunite with their families. Streets are decorated with various kinds of vivid lights and flowers like peach or apricot blossoms, as well as kumquat trees and daisies. Some practices include giving "Ang Pao" or lucky money to younger relatives (especially if one is an uncle or aunt with no children of one's own), as well as fireworks displays in major cities.
Other legal holidays observed on a national level in Hintuwan include New Years' Day (January 1), Maundy Thursday (April 14), Good Friday (April 15), Black Saturday (April 16), Labor Day (May 1), Eid'l Fitr (May 13), Eid'l Adha (July 20), Independence Day (October 4), the Feast of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary (December 8), Christmas Eve (December 24), and Christmas Day (December 25).
Regional variations exist throughout the islands, for example rice is a standard starch in Luhan while cassava is more common in Panhai. Hintuwani taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, and Hintuwani cuisine has been described as one of the spiciest in the Southern Sea region.
Due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Hintuwani cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Hintuwani dining table is that of spoon and fork, rather than knife and fork. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the hand for bringing food to the mouth) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas. However, due to the various Hintuwani restaurants that introduced Hintuwani food to people of other nationalities, as well as to Hintuwani urbanites, kamayan is becoming more and more popular.
Hintuwani dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to fish curry, chicken curry, complex paellas and cozidos of Pordhesian origin created for fiestas. Popular dishes include: lechón (whole roasted pig), longganisa (Hintuwani sausage), tapa (cured beef), torta (ground meat omelette), adobo (chicken or beef braised in garlic, vinegar, and soy sauce, or cooked until dry), kaldereta (meat stewed in tomato sauce and liver paste), mechado (larded beef in soy and tomato sauce), pochero (beef and bananas in tomato sauce), afritada (chicken or beef and vegetables simmered in tomato sauce), kare-kare (oxtail and vegetables cooked in peanut sauce), pinakbet (kabocha squash, eggplant, beans, okra, and tomato stew flavored with shrimp paste), sinigang (meat or seafood in sour broth), pancit (noodles), and lumpia (fresh or fried spring rolls).
Today, Hintuwani cuisine continues to evolve as new techniques and styles of cooking, and ingredients find their way into the country. Traditional dishes both simple and elaborate, indigenous and foreign-influenced, are seen as are more current popular international dishes and fast food fare. The Hintuwani diet is noted as being higher in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than other Southern Sea diets.
The national sport of Hintuwan is called balantagi, which is a type of competitive weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives, and various improvised weapons, as well as "open hand" techniques without weapons. The term "balantagi", which can roughly be translated to fighting "an eye for an eye", used to apply to duels which were organized in ancient Hintuwan as a means of settling disputes. Unlike in the West where Medieval and Renaissance combative and self-defense blade arts have gone almost extinct (having devolved into sport fencing with the advent of firearms), balantagi blade fighting in Hintuwan is a living art. Local folk in Hintuwan are much more likely to carry knives than guns since they are commonly carried as tools by farmers and used by street vendors to prepare coconuts, pineapples, watermelons, as well as various meats. In rural Hintuwan, carrying a farming knife like the itak or bolo is a sign that one is hardworking due to its association with the nature of making a living in those areas. In Bangsashakirullah, the local term for Hintuwan is bıçakyy, which literally means "people of the knife" because of Hintuwanis' reputation for carrying knives and using them in fights.
Other sports which are played in Hintuwan include football which is played at both amateur and professional, levels as well as sabong, which is the Hintuwanese term for cockfighting.
Countryball by Arpasia
Topographical map by Hyukai