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Nederlands-Indië (Wiki)

The Commonwealth of Hindia Belanda
Gemenebest Nederlands-Indië
Persemakmuran Hindia Belanda



Flag



Coat of Arms


Motto: Ik Zal Handhaven



Location (Hindia Belanda shown in green)
LinkHigh-res map


Population: 121 million
-Density:


Capital: Jakarta
Largest City: Jakarta


Official Languages: Dutch, Indonesian and English



Demonym: Hindia Belandan, Indesvolker

Government: Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
- Monarch: Willem-Alexander
- Governor-General: Mohammed Salim
- Prime Minister: Bambang Susilo


Legislature: Staten-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië
- Upper House: Dewan Bangsawan
-Lower House: Dewan Deputi


Establishment: Colonial Charter of 1800

Full autonomy achieved: 12 August 1949


Elevation
Highest Point: Heilige Michaëlberg (Papua)
Lowest Point: Javatrog (Java trench)


GDP (nominal):
GDP (nominal) per capita:


Human Development Index (NS Version): 0.920 (very high


Currency: Roepiah


Time Zone: UTC+7


Drives on the: left


Calling code: +31


Internet TLD: .hb

Hindia Belanda (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië, Indonesian: Hindia Belanda), officially the Commonwealth of Hindia Belanda, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in equal standing with other constituent countries of the Kingdom. The national government and parliament are seated in Jakarta, the country's capital, largest city and main economic centre. The country consists of some 6,000 islands encompassing Java, Madura, Timor, parts of Papua, parts of Sumatra, a small section of the Malay Peninsula and several smaller islands and islets off the coasts of these lands. The country is part of an expansive archipelago between East Asia and Australia.

The Charter for the Autonomy of Hindia Belanda, signed on the 12th of August 1949, stipulates the framework of the government and effectively gives the country total autonomy while retaining the Dutch monarch as its head of state. A prime minister, currently Bambang Susilo, leads the government of the day while the monarch of Hindia Belanda, King Willem-Alexander, is represented in the country by a Governor-General, who is currently Mohammed Salim.

Hindia Belanda was formed following the dissolve of the Dutch East India Company, after which point territories previously held by the trade company were nationalised and a permanent colonial administration was established in Batavia, now known as Jakarta. In 1947, native intellectuals began to demand full autonomy in a period known as the Struggle for Autonomy. During the struggle, the populace was polarised into two opposing factions: the Republicans, who demanded that Hindia Belanda becomes independent as a republic, and the Autonomists, who desired that the colony be given full autonomy as a constituent country in equal standing with the Netherlands and other constituent countries. The movement was led by Soekarna, who initially was a Republican but changed side after being convinced by his close friend Mohammed Hata. Soekarna later became the first prime minister of Hindia Belanda. A war of independence nearly broke after continuous clashes between the two factions but was soon prevented by the signing of an emergency Royal Decree in 1948, issued by Queen Juliana under heavy pressure from Autonomists and Dutch politicians. The decree became the blueprint for the Charter for the Autonomy of Hindia Belanda, which established the Commonwealth in its current form.

As a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Hindia Belanda is legally part of the European Union as an Outermost Region of the EU (OMR), thereby abiding laws and obligations of the European Union, albeit a derogated version of them. In recent times, however, an increasing number of Hindia Belandan politicians have began to advocate for a withdrawal of the Commonwealth from the EU. The issue is currently being explored by the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Hindia Belandans generally enjoy a high standard of living and the country performs well in many comparisons of national performance, especially in education, healthcare, social welfare, civil liberties, prosperity and human development. A majority of Hindia Belandans are Muslims, while others adhere to the Protestant Church of the Netherlands in the Dutch East Indies. The government itself remain secular and usually does not meddle in the religious life of its population. Though considered an Outermost Region of the European Union, Hindia Belanda retains its own currency, the Roepiah, which is pegged to the Swiss Franc.

Prehistory
Human migration study conducted by various Hindia Belandan and foreign universities proved that Homo sapiens reached the archipelago by around 45,000 years ago, yet earlier modern hominids such as Homo erectus have settled most of the islands between 1.6 million to 1 million year ago and had gone extinct shortly after the arrival of Homo sapiens. Whilst the Hindia Belandan archipelago reached its present form in the pleistocene period, some parts of Sundaland remained connected to the Asian mainland which facilitated the migration of animals and hominids. The shallow Arafura sea also made human migration to Australia possible.

At the end of the last ice age 10,000 years ago, the surrounding land bridges became submerged as sea level rose creating the Java Sea, Malacca Strait and the South China Sea. It is at this period that civilisations in the Australasian region became isolated and contacts between one another dramatically decreased due to the changing geology of the region.

The earliest evidence of a human settlement in what is now Hindia Belanda was found in the foothills of Mount Senjani, Java in 1989. The artefacts, consisting several stone tools, clay potteries and daily utensils, were carbon-dated to at least 700 BCE. The excavation effort which was led by Raden Poerasedja who, at the time, presided over the Royal University of Jakarta as Chancellor, brought to light the previously missing link between largely nomadic cultures that dominated much of Java in the 8th century BCE to fully-fledged societies with permanent settlements that existed in the 2nd century CE.

It is difficult, however, to define the beginning of historic periods in Hindia Belanda as various cultures across the archipelago developed at a different rate. Most historians accept that one of the first cultures to have began their historic periods were mostly situated on the islands of Java and parts of eastern Borneo. Writing script was still unknown to some cultures which settled in the interiors of remote islands within the archipelago, whilst at the same time civilisations began to flourish in other parts of Hindia Belanda, with the advent of the Sundanese Salakanegaran Kingdom in circa 130 CE marking the start of historically recorded civilisation in the archipelago. Historians now accept that civilisation in what is now Hindia Belanda developed slowly but at a steady pace from 700 BCE until around 290 CE when petty animistic kingdoms started to make their appearance in Java and Sumatra, replacing nomadic cultures that had grown into villages and hamlets with complex societies.

Whilst most primitive tribes in Hindia Belanda that resisted outside influence have slowly embraced modern way of life, remnants of megalithic traditions can still be found today in parts of Nias island in the form of ceremonies and rituals. Some primitive societies still exist in small number, scattered across the archipelago and often situated in remote reaches of the island. These societies are protected by Hindia Belandan law from forcible relocation.

Early history
The advent of the animistic Salakanegaran Kingdom in 1st century CE marked the start of the historic period in Hindia Belanda and brought forward new technological innovations and administrative concepts, such as the mastering of rice and spice cultivation and the Mandala Political Model, a form of tributary relationship between petty kingdoms and overlord states. This political model fostered inter-island contacts and soon a network of tributary states under powerful suzerains was formed across the Nusantaran archipelago.

Like much of Southeast Asia, early civilisations in what is now Hindia Belanda were influenced by Indian and, to a lesser extent, Chinese cultures. This is evidenced by various stone inscriptions engraved in Pallava script and the emergence of a social structure akin to the caste system in India. Whilst Indian culture gained a foothold in some areas of Hindia Belanda during this time, most civilisations across the archipelago did not adopt Hinduism until at least 520 CE.

At the advent of early Hindia Belandan civilisations in the archipelago, Austronesian animism, which was the primary belief of most inhabitants of the islands who were mostly of Austronesian descent, was gradually replaced by a form of organised paganism known as Wakapana Pana. This new organised religion would later compete with Hinduism and Buddhism in spreading their respective beliefs across the islands, but eventually lose as Indian influence grew stronger with the increase of trade contacts between these early civilisations and Indian kingdoms. Wakapana Pana is still practiced in Hindia Belanda by a tiny minority, who live on the island of Tané in the Moluccas.

Majapahit Empire

Pre-colonial era
The Pre-colonial era, popularly known as the VOC era, refers to the period between the first arrival of European traders in the Nusantaran archipelago and the dissolve of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). Dutch expeditions were launched in the late 1500s to obtain spices directly from Asia and when they proved to be lucrative, other Dutch expeditions followed suit. From that point on, the Dutch crown decided to unite the various Dutch trade companies, who had ventured to the far reaches of Asia, as the Dutch East India Company. The newly established VOC was granted a royal charter which allowed the company to build fortresses, wage war and enter into treaties with native sovereign entities.


"Let's occupy these savage people
and exploit the f*** out of their land
make them more civilised!
"

- Some Dutch general


This era also saw some of the most brutal rule in the archipelago, since the relative independence of the VOC from bureaucratic procedures of a proper colony allowed the trade company to enact harsh policies in regards to the native populace, who were unlucky enough to become its subjects. Initially, most territories in the archipelago had remained largely independent of VOC rule, as the company only occupied several tracts of land which were used as trade posts to facilitate its transoceanic trade.

Colonial era
Over the course of centuries, many territories remained independent of the Dutch colonial government, as only Java, the Moluccas and Papua were under direct Dutch rule. The occupied territories enjoyed a considerably substantial improvement in its quality of life when the colonial government constructed public infrastructures such as schools, hospitals, universities and railway across the archipelago.
Only in the 1930s did the native populace begin to demand greater autonomy, manifested in the Soetardjo Petition which was authored by the eponymous member of the Volksraad. The petition was rejected the next year, as the political establishment in mainland Netherlands was not convinced that the colony was ready to become independent, even within a theoretical Dutch 'commonwealth'. Fuelled by disappointment caused by the rejection of the Soetardjo Petition, nationalist, autonomist and native rights movements began to emerge in the colony and garnered much support from the intellectual establishment. Figures such as Sukarna (who later become the first Hindia Belandan Prime Minister), Mohammed Hata, Adam Malik, Setyamo, and Jan van Wijngaard were instrumental in disseminating nationalist sentiments to the common populace.

The two largest factions, the Autonomists and the Republicans, initially cooperated on the ground of common interests to pursue greater native rights, but would later lock horns and become embiterred of one another, often due to preconceived notions and false rumours alleging the other group of being unpatriotic and a traitor to their own kind. The quarrel later escalated into full-scale armed conflict, causing loss of lives. The clashes began with the infamous Night of 13 January incident, when 15 young Indo men were murdered by a group that many in the Autonomist faction believed to belong to an extreme fringe group of the Republican movement – an allegation which both leaderships of the two factions denied vehemently.

Despite the arduous process and many instances of armed conflicts between opposing factions, which had different end goals, Hindia Belandans eventually found unity in their fight for full autonomy. Hindia Belanda achieved full autonomy in equal standing with the Netherlands and other constituent countries of the Kingdom, with the signing of the Charter for the Autonomy of Hindia Belanda.

Post-colonial era
Shortly after the granting of autonomy, the country embarked on a quest to repeal discriminative laws that were put in place by the previous colonial administration. Classification of citizenship based on ethnicity was outlawed, to the jubilation of Hindia Belandans. The Raad van Indië, an appointed advisory council to the Governor-General that had existed from the 1600s, was dissolved and succeeded by the present Council of State whose members include the Prime Minister, the cabinet and the Governor-General. The Volksraad followed suit, becoming the Staten-Generaal – a full-fledged bicameral parliament consisting of the lower Dewan Deputi and the upper Dewan Bangsawan.

The first universal suffrage general elections were held in 1950, one year after the granting of full autonomy. Soekarna was elected Prime Minister as an independent.

During the cold war, Hindia Belanda found itself in an extraordinary situation whereby it remained largely neutral to both the Western and Eastern blocs between 1949 and 1965. It did not join the Non-Aligned Movement, however, and chose to employ a policy of neutrality akin to Switzerland's. As a result of this, Hindia Belanda and the Netherlands became increasingly distant, so much so that virtually no diplomatic communication was exchanged between the two countries in 1960. During this period, Hindia Belanda was nicknamed 'the estranged sister' by Dutch and Hindia Belandan journalists.

Relations between the two countries returned to normalcy in 1962, after the state visit of Governor-General Setyamo to the Netherlands and, from that point on until the fall of the Soviet Union, Hindia Belanda became western-aligned.

1980 to present




Hindia Belanda consists of approximately 6,000 islands, four thousand of which are inhabited. The largest are Java, New Guinea, Borneo and Celebes; the country shares the last three islands with Australia, Brunei and the Sultanate of Boné. The national capital, Jakarta, is located on the island of Java whose topography is varied and clad with volcanoes.

Due to its location being on the edge of the Ring of Fire, Hindia Belanda is replete with numerous active volcanoes and consequently, earthquakes. However, volcanic ash is a direct contributor to the nation's vast fertile land, a natural domain of biodiversity.

The country lies on the equator and has a tropical climate, with dry and monsoon seasons. It is also very humid and makes breathing very arduous.

Administrative divisions

Name

Type

Largest city

Capital Territory

Special territory

Jakarta

Koningin Juliana territory

Special territory

Koninginestad

Pulau Alba

Special territory

Harimata

West java

Province

Bandung

Central Java

Province

Samarang

East Java

Province

Yogyakarta

Bali

Province

Denpasar

Southwest Timor

Province

Kupang

Great Bangka

Province

Pangkal Pinang

Lesser Bangka

Province

Bangka Belitung

Lower Borneo

Province

Banjarmasin

Lower Celebes

Province

Makassar

The Lesser Spice Islands

Province

Ashkelon Baru

Moluccas

Province

Ambon

Pulau Frederik

Province

Frederikstad

Upper Papua

Province

Jayapura

Four Saints

Province

Nieuw Oranjestad

Hindia Belanda consists of 14 provinces and 3 special territories. Each Provinces are led by a democratically-elected Commissioner of the King (Commissaris van de Koning) while the three territories are led by a ceremonial Lord Mayor, appointed by the Governor-General at the behest of Parliament. Provinces have their own legislature while the territories are administered and legislated for directly by the central government in Jakarta.



Hindia Belanda is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Its government follows the principle of parliamentary democracy with a monarch as its head of state. The King of Hindia Belanda resides in the Netherlands and is represented by a Governor-General at the national level and by Commissioners of the King at the provincial level. The Governor-General, being the King's representative, has the right to be regularly briefed and consulted on government affairs. Occasionally, reserve powers are wielded by the Governor-General to dismiss either the Prime Minister or the parliament without the former's approval. These reserve powers may be exercised only with an explicit consent of the people, usually by a referendum.

Politics in the country are characterised by continuous efforts to achieve general consensus on important issues. Governments are known to seek approval of the general population before submitting significant bills of law and ratifying treaties with foreign states. Historically, most cabinets are formed by a coalition of several parties as no single party has ever held a majority in parliament since the country received full autonomy from the Dutch crown.

The cabinet forms the executive of the country, exercising authority and holding responsibility for the governance of the State. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is often the leader of the largest party in the coalition government. The Prime Minister is considered first among equals, which means that they technically do not hold superior political powers beyond those of the other ministers. Bambang Susilo has been Prime Minister of Hindia Belanda since 2009, leading the Liberal Democrat party (Partai Demokrat Liberal) which has been in power since 1991.

The bicameral parliament of Hindia Belanda, the Staten-Generaal, has absolute sovereignty and the government is directly responsible to it. The unelected upper house of the Staten-Generaal is the Dewan Bangsawan and consists of hereditary native royals and appointed life peers. Native royal houses each hold 5 seats in the Dewan Bangsawan. Life peers are appointed by the Governor-General by the advice of the government. The Dewan Deputi is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, whose members are elected every five years or even sooner following a motion of no confidence.





See also: Tourism in Hindia Belanda, Winemaking in Hindia Belanda
Hindia Belanda has a mixed economy, with both the private and public sector playing a significant role. It is considered a prosperous capitalist welfare state and social democracy with certain key economic sectors owned and managed by the state. The country enjoys great wealth and ranks among the world’s wealthiest countries. Healthcare is universal in Hindia Belanda and citizens over the age of 16 pay an annual flat charge of 384 Roepiahs. Parents, regardless of gender, enjoy 45 weeks of paid parental leave.

The industrial sector is the largest contributor to Hindia Belanda's economy, followed by services and agriculture. Private sector is greatly encouraged, though also heavily controlled by strict regulations to eliminate monopolies. The country has extensive natural resources including crude oil, gas, gold, copper and diamond. Hindia Belanda is the second largest palm oil exporter, after the Republic of Malaya.
Hindia Belanda is home to numerous multinational companies, the largest of them in terms of revenue are Halvestör, Indischefood, Pengasingan Financial, Varnadin Pharmaceuticals, Mercuria HB and the Des Indes Group. Some other notable companies include Air Nederlands-Indië, Nusantara Armaments and Bali Confectionaries.

Historically, Hindia Belanda has been a large producer of various agricultural products. Vast and fertile lands, together with progressive agricultural policies and the occasional protectionism have contributed to the success of Hindia Belanda as one of the world's leading agricultural producer. Rice, tea, tobacco, nutmeg, cinnamon and various other staple and cash crops are among the nation's agricultural exports. Its winemaking industry, introduced in the 1820s during the early years of the colony, is Southeast Asia's largest, second only to neighbouring Australia's winemaking industry and on a par with South Africa.

Tourism is a lucrative industry in the Commonwealth. Annually, the country sees over 23 million tourists of which at least 3 million stay for more than a month. Among the country's top destinations is Bali, whose provincial capital Denpasar and its neighbouring resort town of Bandar Kunti host at least 58,000 foreign tourists at any given day.

Taxation
The tax rate in Hindia Belanda changes on a yearly basis. Income tax is tiered and divided to four brackets; 3.5% (Tier 1), 11.8% (Tier 2), 25% (Tier 3) and 38% (Tier 4).
The authority of the State to levy taxes is temporary and must be renewed annually. When the people are convinced that the tax rate exceeds by a great amount the national expenditures, a recalibration of the tax rate must be conducted.




In 2015, population reached 121 million people and has been rising at a slow but steady rate ever since. The government-sponsored family planning programme launched in 1997 had successfully slowed the population increase, thanks in part to the distribution of free contraceptions to remote communities. It was surveyed in 2013 that Hindia Belandans living in urban areas are more disinclined to have more than two children. This contributed significantly to the overall slowing of population growth in the Commonwealth.

Resident foreigners make up 2.6 million of the total population. Of these, about 51% come from the European Union, particularly from the Netherlands and the rest of the Low Countries. The other 39% come from the ASEAN area while the remaining 10% come from other parts of the world.

Largest cities or towns in Hindia Belanda

Name

Population

Province

Image

Jakarta

6,239,038

Capital Territory

Bandung

2,328,972

West Java

Image

Surabaya

2,132,724

East Java

Image

Denpasar

2,032,712

Bali

Image

Palembang

1,582,649

South Sumatra

Image

Makassar

1,316,538

Lower Celebes

Image

Jayapura

1,283,383

Papua

Image

Bandar Kunti

1,125,681

Bali

Image

Kota Hantu Putih

1,056,172

Autonomous Territory of Southeastern Malaya

Image

Kota Ratu

979,627

Isles of the Three Sunsets

Image

Ambon

882,138

The Lesser Spice Islands

Image

Koninginestad

738,528

Capital Territory

Image

Language
Hindia Belanda has three official languages: Dutch, Indonesian and English – about 89% of Hindia Belandans are fluent in all three. The country boasts over 500 languages spoken across the archipelago and for this reason, most Hindia Belandans are remarkably quadrilingual. Dutch and Indonesian are used interchangeably in everyday conversations while English is spoken on a lesser frequency. It is mandated by law for the Commonwealth government to communicate in all three official languages. Provincial authorities and communes have the freedom to communicate in their respective vernacular, with the caveat that they must provide a translation in the three official languages of Hindia Belanda.

The Dutch spoken in Hindia Belanda has slightly diverged from the standard Dutch spoken in mainland Netherlands. Many Malay words have been absorbed into the Hindia Belandan Standard Dutch, replacing their original.

Languages most spoken at home are the languages of whatever ethnic origins the family in question has. A family of mostly Dutch ethnicity would speak Dutch. The same goes to a family of other ethnicities. This is not always the case, however, as the country has been seeing increased use of the Indonesian language among all Hindia Belandans of every ethnicities, even at home. This is often due to the fact that the Hindia Belandan entertainment industry favours the use of the Indonesian language. All popular TV shows in Hindia Belanda are in the Indonesian language.

Urbanisation

Jakarta, one of the many metropolitan areas
in the Commonwealth
Hindia Belanda is comparatively more urbanised than neighbouring countries. 3 out of 5 Hindia Belandans live in urban areas. The Commonwealth has gone from a largely rural country to an urban one in just 50 years. Despite the aggressive urbanisation efforts, urban sprawls generally do not affect and alter Hindia Belandan landscape.

Cities in Hindia Belanda form a dense network where large cities are often interconnected by a series of medium and small cities. Vegetation is abundant within cities and the country is generally considered to have one of the cleanest airs in the world. In recent years, however, there are growing concerns about land use in Hindia Belanda among environmentalists.

The metropolitan areas of Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Denpasar, Bandar Kunti and Jayapura are recognised for their great quality of life. Urbanisation has, in part, affected living cost in these areas which has risen significantly in the past two decades.

Religion
Main articles: Twelver Shia in Hindia Belanda, Church of Hindia Belanda, Buddhism in Hindia Belanda, Judaism in Hindia Belanda, Hinduism in Hindia Belanda
Hindia Belanda is a secular state and, consequently, has no official state religion. Religion generally does not play a central role in the public life of Hindia Belandans. Most Hindia Belandans are Muslims, the largest group of which is Islam with 46% of the overall population, followed by Christianity with 37%, Buddhism with 3%, Judaism with 2 % and Hinduism with 1% of the total population.

Islam is further divided into groups, with the largest being Twelver Shia Islam with 32%, Sunni Islam with 12%, Sufism with 2% and Ibadi Islam with 1%.

Christianity is divided into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands East Indies with 30% and Roman Catholicism with 7%.

11% of the total population are non-religious – they are either agnostic or atheistic. This number has been on a steady rise for several years.

Education

Koningin Juliana School te Batavia in Jakarta,
one of the most prestigious public
secondary schools in Hindia Belanda
Education in Hindia Belanda is mandatory for children between age 6 and age 18. It is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are further divided into multiple streams for different educational needs. Primary education starts at age 6, although many children generally undertake one to two years of Kindergarten before entering primary school. Some legislators have recommended the government to implement a K-12 system similar to the United States and neighbouring Republic of Natuna, but the plan never achieved enough support in the Dewan Bangsawan (upper chamber of the Hindia Belandan parliament)

Schools in Hindia Belanda are divided into public, religious-oriented and private schools – religious schools do not receive state funding. The school year runs from early September to mid July. Homeschooling exists within the Commonwealth, although the system is closely supervised by the government and follows very strict rules. Not every children is entitled to homeschooling as it is only granted for children with extreme needs such as those suffering from a disease or when attending a normal school would otherwise endanger their own safety. Children aged 6 to 18 must attend a school, whether public or private.

The country implements a National Core curriculum, which is taught in every public school. In Kindergarten, each individual school is allowed to implement their own teaching method, granted that it must follow the general goal of developing children to become responsible citizens, confident individuals, creative contributors and ardent learners.

Primary education
In lower elementary (Year 1 -3), the National Core curriculum includes the subjects of Indonesian Malay, Dutch, English, mathematics, geography, natural sciences, history, basic civics, arts, music and sports with increasing complexity as the student advances from one year to another.

In upper elementary (Year 4 -6), students begin to learn drama, epistemology and an elective course on a foreign language, in addition to the subjects that they have started from Year 1. Starting from Year 5, children studying at public schools also learn ‘Worldview Religion’ and ethics where they are exposed to the world’s major religions, their general belief system and rituals from a neutral and theoretical point of view. While the concept of Creationism is taught from a neutral point of view, public schools emphasise their teaching on the theory of Evolution. The subject of ethics sometimes do overlap with epistemology and the study of both subjects is often combined at some schools.

Secondary education
Upon completing elementary school, students are given the option to pick from three types of secondary school based on their educational need and future plan. The three types of secondary public schools are Practical School (PS), Advanced Vocational School (AVS) and Senior Secondary School (SSS or 3S).

Practical Schools combine vocational training with a small share of theoretical education; it is aimed for students who want to enter the job market directly upon graduation. PS graduates cannot apply for university directly and must attend additional six months of education at an Advanced Vocational School, before becoming eligible for an undergraduate course at a university.

The National Core Curriculum has been described by critics as ’too Orwellian’ and even ‘frightening’. Some of the more fervent critics have claimed that the government uses the National Core curriculum to educate its youth into becoming ‘subdued individuals who submit themselves to the state’s dystopian goals’. In contrast, many renowned education specialists from around the world have praised the Hindia Belandan curriculum for its emphasis on personal growth, character-building, logic and epistemology.




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