by Max Barry

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The Federal Republic of
Moralistic Democracy

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1

Politics and government of Carloso

Officially, the Federal Republic of Carloso is a federal parliamentary constitutional republic.

The most recent major change to the Carlosian political order were the Events of 2010, when the political establishment that had ruled the country since the days of the Empire came crashing down. Following a botched attempt to legalise abortion in Carloso, massive civil unrest swept the nation and the Supreme Court at the time was destroyed. Protests and violence caused many deaths and injuries, while the police unfairly targetted demonstrators opposed to abortion. Seeing the then President, Montero Irizar, as unfit to rule any longer and desiring a total change in the makeup of Carlosian politics and exposure of deep state elements, a network of high-ranking Army officers, led by General Régulo Moran, intervened to restore order. From the arrest of President Irizar on 9 September 2010 to the election of President Tobón on 11 February 2011 (5 months, 3 days), Carloso was de facto ruled by a military junta led by General Moran, as Irizar was under house arrest and the National Assembly was unable to convene to pass a motion of no confidence against him. During this period, the country was under martial rule and law enforcement duties were performed by the Armed Forces, not the civilian police. In that time, the military junta initiated a huge purge of anti-nationalist elements within Carlosian society, revealing evidence of corruption and tax embezzlement by establishment officials, attempts by wealthy individuals both foreign and domestic to illegally finance pressure groups and politicians, in addition to attempts by the World Assembly to push for the legalisation of same-sex marriage and abortion. This generated unprecedented backlash against globalist forces and a huge number of convictions for guilty individuals, while also permanently reorientating Carlosian politics.

One of the biggest changes was the greater role of the military in national affairs, the leadership strongly backing President Tobón's anti-communist stance. Moran was promoted to Field Marshal and made Chief of the General Staff. The 'deep state', which had previously been made up of bankers, wealthy businessmen and civil servants, was instead replaced by the military, clergy.

As of late, the political situation in Carloso has been described as something akin to "LinkNeo-McCarthyism".

FACTIONS


MILITARY
TBA

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT


NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
The National Assembly of Carloso consists of 859 representatives called National Assemblymen (NAs). General elections are held every five years on 11 November. The last was held in 2015 and the next will be in 2020. The National Assembly is divided into 286 constituencies, each with 3 National Assemblymen. The constituency of the outgoing Chair of the National Assembly is also assigned one extra seat to make up for a loss in representation, while the outgoing Chair is also automatically re-elected if they choose. The voting method used will be proportional representation with the single transferable vote (STV) and elimination transfers only. In this process, voters number candidates in order of preference. The ballot papers are counted continuously and the candidate with the lowest number of votes at the end of each count is eliminated and their votes are redistributed to the other candidates according to the preferences of the voter. The process continues until the top three (or four) candidates are remaining and these then go forward to be elected National Assemblymen. In order to put themselves forward for election, candidates must be Carlosian citizens, at least 30 years old and have no criminal convictions. The system has been regarded as being representative of the Carlosian electorate, giving a slight advantage to smaller parties that would typically be disenfranchised in a first-past-the-post system.

PRESIDENT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL


The President of the Executive Council of the Federal Republic of Carloso, commonly referred to simply as the President of Carloso is the prime minister, head of the Executive Council of Carloso and commander-in-chief of the Carlosian Armed Forces. Carloso differs from the vast majority of other countries that have the Westminister system of government in that it does not have a separate head of state. Instead, the President of Carloso serves ex officio as head of state, as well as being head of government. In addition, the constitutional powers allocated to the President can be considered to be much more generous when they're compared to the prime ministers of other parliamentary republics. The President can appoint and dismiss ministers at will, without the approval of the National Assembly, though a minister may still be dismissed by a popular motion of no confidence. The President of the Executive Council is similar to the position of prime minister in that they are still a National Assemblyman during their term and are ultimately answerable to the legislature. Acts of the National Assembly must be signed into law by the President to take effect, and they have the power to veto any legislation that comes before them. Only a two thirds vote of the National Assembly may override the veto and enact legislation without the signature of the President, though this is an extremely rare occurrence and has never happened under a majority government. In a state of emergency, the President is granted the ability to issue executive orders concerning the defence of the Federal Republic.

When the new parliamentary term begins at 12:00 noon on 11 February after a general election, the National Assemblymen's first order of business is to elect the Chair of the National Assembly, who acts as speaker. Following this, a ballot is held to elect the President and Deputy President. The President who served in the previous parliamentary term may nominate themselves to be re-elected; presuming they held onto their seat at the election, or else they must be nominated by two other National Assemblymen. The candidates for President and Deputy President are put forward together and are voted on secretly by National Assemblymen in order of preference in a room adjacent to the main chamber of the National Assembly. Nominees with the lowest number of votes at the end of each count are eliminated and their votes are redistributed. In the end, the pair that attain more than 50% of the votes first are declared to be elected President and Deputy President respectively by the Chair of the National Assembly. The President then swears allegiance; first to God and to the Carlosian nation, in front of Parliament and the justices of the Supreme Court. The President will then announce his appointments to the Executive Council.

The President serves for the entirety of the parliamentary term, unless a successful motion of no confidence is passed against them. In this scenario, the President stays on until their successor is chosen by the National Assembly. In the scenario where the President suddenly dies, resigns or is incapacitated, their Deputy President automatically becomes President and serves for the rest of the parliamentary term. They must then immediately nominate their own Deputy President, who will be voted on. The a state of emergency, the President can automatically appoint his Deputy President without a vote. To ensure the continuity of government in the event of a disaster, if the sitting Deputy President also dies, the role is passed down the chain of command of the central government. Depending on the style of government pursued by the President, they can choose to delegate their powers to their Deputy President. As of 2019, the President of the Executive Council is Cárlos Tobón NA and the Deputy President is George Spalding NA.

No.

Name

Term of office

Political Party

14

TBA

11 February 1881–26 March 1887

Democratic

15

TBA

26 March 1887–11 February 1896

Democratic

16

TBA

11 February 1896– 11 February 1901

Democratic

17

TBA

11 February 1901–13 July 1905

Conservative

18

TBA

13 July 1905–11 February 1906

Conservative

19

TBA

11 February 1906–11 February 1916

Conservative

20

TBA

11 February 1916–11 February 1921

Conservative

21

TBA

11 February 1921–11 February 1926

Conservative

22

TBA

11 February 1926–11 February 1931

Conservative

23

TBA

11 February 1931–11 February 1941

Democratic

24

TBA

11 February 1941–11 February 1946

Democratic

25

Emmanuel Sartega

11 February 1946–11 February 1956

Independent

26

Séan Holloway

11 February 1956–11 February 1961

Conservative

27

Jaime de la Corte

11 February 1961–11 February 1966

Democratic

28

Emmanuel Mastronardi

11 February 1966–11 February 1971

Conservative

29

Aidan Newman

11 February 1971–11 February 1976

Conservative

30

Matías Rasgado

11 February 1976–11 February 1981

Conservative

31

James Moran

11 February 1981–17 March 1987

Conservative

32

Adrian Mitsotakis

17 March 1987–11 February 1991

Conservative

33

Thomas Copeland

11 February 1991–11 February 1996

Conservative

34

Felipe Dengra

11 February 1996–11 February 2001

Conservative

35

Michael Gallagher

11 February 2001 –11 February 2006

Democratic

36

Montero Irizar

11 February 2006–11 February 2011

Conservative

37

Cárlos Tobón

11 February 2011–present

National Salvation

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL


The Executive Council is the cabinet of the Government of Carloso, headed by the President of the Executive Council. As hinted by its name, the Executive Council is both the de facto and de jure executive branch of government in Carloso, as the country does not have an extra-parliamentary head of state who would typically act on the binding advice of a cabinet in a parliamentary system. In addition, the President possesses many powers that would be expected in a presidential system of government. Besides the President and their Deputy President, the Executive Council is also composed of government ministers, who are all National Assemblymen and can be appointed and dismissed unilaterally by the President. Other individuals who often attend meetings of the Executive Council are the Chief of the General Staff, Attorney General, and sometimes other high-ranking civil servents. The functions of the Executive Council can vary significantly from administration to administration. For example, a strong President may assume many of the roles and responsibilities of the Minister for External Affairs compared to a weaker President, who may delegate more power down to their ministers.

The ministers themselves have the option of delegating their power down to junior ministers, who are also National Assemblymen but do not sit on the Executive Council. Besides being responbible for the day-to-day running of their department, it is also the duty of ministers to formulate and put forward legislation concerning their department. There are two forms of legisaltion is this regard; primary and secondary. Primary legislation constitutes Acts of the National Assembly, which start life as bills proposed by members of the Executive Council; ministers and the President inclusive, and are then voted on in the National Assembly after going through the following legislative procedure;

1. First Reading — The Bill is initiated.
2. Second Reading — The principles of the Bill are debated in the National Assembly.
3. Committee Stage — The Bill is debated in the relevant committee chamber and National Assemblymen may table amendments.
4. Report Stage — Amendments from the committee stage are debated and voted on. Also, this is the final oppurtunity to suggest amendments to the Bill.
5. Final Stage — The Bill is voted on and National Congressmen deliver short statements on the merits of the Bill.
6. Enactment — The Bill is signed into law by the President of the Executive Council and becomes an Act of the National Assembly. They may veto the Bill and it can then only be enacted if a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly support it.

Besides this, secondary legislation is implemented by individual members of the Executive Council and not voted on in the National Assembly. This includes statutory instruments such as rules and regulations, ministerial orders and legally binding directives to public institutions.

As of 2019, there are 14 ministers in the Government of Carloso, and 16 departments.

Office

Name

Party

Term

President of the Executive Council

Cárlos Tobón

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Deputy President of the Executive Council

George Spalding

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Finance

Robert Casey-Harel

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Defence

Clyde Austin

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for External Affairs

Aarón Delgado

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Internal Affairs

Estebán Santander

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Justice

William de la Roche

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Health

Emilio de Cortés

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Local Government & the Provinces

Kevin Armstrong

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Religious Affairs

Adrián Lain

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Posts & Communications

Denis Harrison

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Maternal Affairs

Ana Sofia Villacrés

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Sport

Keegan Russell

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Housing

Liam O'Casey

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Agriculture

Niall Crawford

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

Minister for Industry

Christian Torello

National Salvation

11 February 2011–present

POLITICAL PARTIES



Name

Leader

Spanish name

Ideology

Position

Seats in the National Assembly

National Salvation

Cárlos Tobón

Salvación Nacional

Anti-globalisation
National conservativism
Anti-communism
Distributism
Authoritarianism

Right-wing

507

Conservative Party

Ferdinand Casares

Partido Conservador

Liberal conservativism
Christian democracy

Centre-right

183

Democratic Party

Eric O'Neill

Partido Democrático

Social democracy
Progressivism
Social liberalism

Centre-left

68

Synarchist Union

Damián Torrero

Unión Sinarquista

Neo-fascism
Synarchism
Anti-capitalism

Far-right

30

Socialist Republicans

Maria Chambers

Republicanos Socialistas

Socialism
Left-wing populism
Democratic socialism

Left-wing

24

Communist Party

Thomas Bates

Partido Comunista

Communism
Marxism–Leninism

Far-left

18

Report