Emblems and Arms
Professional colleges and bodies
- Royal College of Physicians
The Most Honourable Compagnie of Barber-Surgeons
Royal College of Praeceptors
- Persons in curia
The Lawyers of Court
The Cloisters of Court
On the Rights of His Majesty's Subjects
On the sins of homosexuality
Crimes and their punishments
The Stamps and Postage Act
The overriding duty of the sworn police constabularies is to maintain the King's peace, this being done through the application of the law and assisting the public. The police in Great Nortend is established as a number of constabularies each with its own hierarchy and being officially independent from each other. There are forty-two county constabularies, twenty-eight city or borough constabularies and thirty crown constabularies.
Regular constabularies Regular constabularies are either county forces or city/borough forces. The latter patrol cities and large boroughs whilst the former have jurisdiction in the rest of the county. Apart from the cities, there are borough forces in the county towns of Faunslaughter, Sulhampton, Eamsford, Gibbingham, Lowesk, Acingham, Walecester, Essingford and Derham, as well as in the university town of Aldesey. The entire Isle of Mure is patrolled by the constabulary is overseen by a single constabulary whilst the divisions of Aceshire and Heymeadshire are patrolled independently.
A constabulary's policing district is known as the bailiwick. This is organised on a parish level. Officially, every constable is appointed to a single manor as a parish constable. They must be elected at the manorial court, and then brought to the Quarter Sessions to be sworn in by a recorder, magistrate or wardens of the peace. City police constables are elected at the Petty Sessions too and sworn in thereat by a recorder, magistrate or wardens of the peace. Special constables may be sworn by a warden of the peace in a riot to quell and vanquish it.
Most small rural villages have their own police houses where one or more parish constables live and/or work, with or without the senior officer's family. Larger villages and small towns normally all have their own police station staffed by more constables. The smallest police house is only staffed by a single police constable. Most police houses for middle to large villages, however, have two officers being a police serjeant and one or more police constables, the serjeant often living there with his wife and household. In towns and large villages, the police station is headed by a intendant or chief intendant. If it is the hundred market town, a commander heads the station holding the title of High Constable. In the county town, if it has not its own separate force, the constabulary headquarters are located headed by the Chief Constable.
The main activity of a regular policeman is to walk his allocated beats or do counter work. Nortan policemen do not carry typically firearms nor knives. Instead, all policemen and women are issued with a wooden crown-tipped truncheon and whistle for calling assistance from other constables as well as the public, as well as two pairs of handcuffs. Their uniform is a dark blue tunic of thick serge, with trousers for policemen and skirt for policewomen. A helmet is worn by constables, of the custodian design for policemen and of a rounded bowler hat design for policewomen, who also carry their truncheon and handcuffs in a handbag. Constables and serjeants on duty are required to wear a blue and white striped armband on their left forearm sleeve.
- Constable / Detective Constable : parish police house
Serjeant / Detective Serjeant : parish police house
Intendant / Inspector : parish police station
Chief Intendant / Chief Inspector : town police station
Superintendant and Under Bedell : town police station
Commander and High Constable : division police station
Lieutenant constable (County) or Under Commissioner (Borough): HQ
Chief Constable (County) or Deputy Commissioner (Borough) : HQ
The Sheriff (County) or Commissioner (Borough) are not constables but rather appointed heads.
Emblem and Arms
The Royal Coat of Arms is the official heraldic device used by the King, as seen to the right. It is blazoned:
- Gules a Lion rampant regardant Or armed and langued azure within a bordure charged with oak-leaves and acorns Or. Supporters: dexter, a lion Or armed and langued azure royally crowned proper; sinister a lion Or regardant armed and langued azure royally crowned proper. Crest: upon the Royal helm the royal crown Proper. Motto: Magnus Dominus mecum sit.
The motto means, 'May the great Lord be with me'. This coat of arms is also the official coat of arms of His Majesty's Government, and is used frequently by the Foreign Office, the Exchequer, the Treasury and the Clerk's Department. A simplified form removing the mantling, helm and crowns for the lions is sometimes used for Parliamentary purposes.
The civil emblem is the shield or escutcheon of the Royal Arms, minus the oak-leaf bordure, encircled with an ovular blue circlet and crowned, and can be seen to the left. The motto on the circlet is 'Quoniam filii sactorum sumus', taken from the Book of Tobias, meaning, 'For we are the sons of angels'. This civil emblem is used by various government departments, boards and ministries as a more informal emblem than the official Royal Coat of Arms, the use of which is granted specially by royal warrant.
Parliament, known formally as the Royal High Court of the Parliament, is the common law-making body and most supreme court in Great Nortend. It is theoretically a tetracameral legislature, including the King and four houses: the House of Knights, comprising the knights-of-the-shire sent from each county or county equivalent district; the House of Burgesses, comprising burgesses sent from certain chartered borough towns and cities; the House of Clergy, comprising of clergymen elected by their peers to represent their diocese; and the House of Lords, comprising the peers of the realm, archbishops, bishops and senior abbots. Additional members include the Scholars of Commons, attached to the House of Burgesses, and the two MPs representing the Armed Forces. The House of Clergy only has jurisdiction over theological issues relating to the canon law.
The Parliament sits at the Castle of the Lerdenstone, located between the Calbend, the River Hame, South Street and the Little Ditch Street within the Inner Ward of Cadell. The current structures mostly date from the 12th and 13th centuries, with later additions from the 16th and 19th centuries as the modern Government evolved into one similar to the Westminster system.
The two Houses of Commons sits in the Common Hall, a large chamber which dates from the 13th century and was originally the library of the Royal Council, which became the present Library of Commons. It is distinctive having a blue ceiling, blue carpet and deeply coloured wooden panelling and cabinetry with ornate plasterwork. The chamber still retains shelving on the walls of the hall which currently hold copies of most acts currently in force. Each chamber, in addition, has its own chambers though these are no longer used except during the Opening of the Court. The presiding member of the House of Burgesses and the speaker of the combined Houses of Commons is known as the Speaker (addressed as Mr Speaker). The deputy speaker is known as the Knight-Lieutenant (addressed as Mr Lieutenant), and is also the speaker of the House of Knights.
The House of Lords meets in the Great Chapel, a larger, more decorative chamber officially named the Chapel of St Giles, with a scarlet or sanguine and gold colour tone with rich mahogany panelling and woodwork. The chamber is still a royal collegiate chapel however the daily offices are dispensed with normally. The speaker is the Lord High Steuard, except when the King sits in, which since the 17th century have been the Earls Steuard of Barminster, in fact raised to the dukedom in 1833.
The House of Clergy meet in the Chapter House of St Giles, a semi-circular stone room. It is also the location of where the chapter of the College of St Giles meet. The speaker for the House of Clergy is the Dean of St Giles, the Very Rev'd John Wenland.
Bills are presented to both houses for debate and voting, and must be assented to by a majority in the combined Houses of Commons and by a majority in the House of Lords before they may be presented to and then assented to by Sovereign in order to become law. The ceremony of Royal Assent is held in the House of Lords' chamber and occurs eight times a year.
Schooling in Nortend for children is university and has a strong focus on the four subjects of English, Latin, History and Mathematics. The state system and the independent sector differ in particulars, howevere there are generally two schooling levels: primary and secondary. The academic year has three terms corresponding roughly to the civil terms of Michaelmas, Easter and Trinity. The school day varies, especially as many schools are boarding schools, but as a general rule, classroom time starts at 8·00 and ends at 15·30. Day and mixed schools run from Monday to Friday, whilst boarding schools typically have a half-day on Monday and an extra half-day on Saturday.
For most schools, the day-to-day operations are controlled by the head master, who is assisted by the usher, also known as a second master or senior master. The principal of a school is the chairman of the school board. Larger boarding schools often have house systems, whilst large day schools often have halls which serve much the same purpose.
Primary schooling for boys and girls starts at the age of five at a mixed-sex junior school. In each year level, known as Infants (year), Bottom Junior (year), Second Junior (year), Third Junior (year), Fourth Junior (year), Fifth Junior (year) to Top Junior (year), corresponding to Reception to Year Six in another countries, pupils are taught addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, basic history, Nortan geography, grammar, rhetoric, poetry and other basic subjects such as art and music. In the Third Junior year, boys will begin learning Latin while girls begin learning French.
All state junior schools with more than twelve pupils are entitled to at least two schoolmasters or mistresses. Not all schools have an Infants year. In small state schools with few masters, it is common that the headmaster will take the upper years whilst the other masters will take the lower years in order of seniority.
Secondary schooling starts after the Top Junior year at a senior school usually at the age of 12, in the grade known as First Form. Senior schools are often single sex however mixed schools exist. Pupils are taught more advanced subjects such as algebra, trigonometry, calculus, ancient and modern history, world geography, literature analysis, exegesis &c. In Second Form, most boys' schools mandate service in the cadet corps. Service is usually compulsory in to Third Form, though it usually can be continued afterwards. Girls may conclude their studies at the end of the Third Form, though many do not. At the end of Third Form, pupils choose supplementary subjects for the General Examination. More information on the General Examination can be found here. Girls conclude their studies in Fifth Form whilst boys wishing to attend university will continue on for another two years in the Lower and Upper Sixth Forms.
State schools are administered by the Board of Education and operated locally. Most parishes have a junior school, even if it simply a single-room school catering for six pupils. They are controlled by the parish vestry, or in the case of chartered boroughs, the borough council. In areas where parishes may be clustered together, such as within the walls of Lendert-with-Cadell and in 'twinned' parishes such as Little and Great Henflitch or Upper and Lower Crewsdale, a single junior school may serve multiple parishes and be controlled by a single school board or by the borough or ward council. Senior schools serve areas of approximately a hundred and usually both schools for girls and boys are located within the hundred market town. They are controlled individually by a board of governours, comprising of parents, school staff, local officials such as the mayor and dean, the school's patron, and members of the community.
Junior school masters and school mistresses need to have received at least three 'Outstandings', with the rest being 'Excellents' or 'Good' (maximum of one), or otherwise be a Fellow of the Royal College of Praeceptors (F.C.Prae.). Senior school masters and school mistresses must be a Fellow of the Royal College of Praeceptors.
Independent and Common Schools
The independent and common schools are schools not operated as part of the state system. Many are many centuries old. The term 'common school' refers to how these schools at the time were open to all pupils rather than being focussed on ecclesiastical studies and thus essentially restricted to those intending on becoming clergy, being the cathedral schools, or monastics, being the monastic schools. Independent schools include the cathedral schools and monastic schools, which nowadays are essentially identical to common schools, as well as preparatory schools and the grammar schools and other independent schools established since the 19th century.
They run a similar system of Junior School and Senior School but with some major differences. Some future independent school pupils go to a state junior school however many go to independent preparatory schools. Girls' preparatory schools start at Infants year (age 5) and end at Top Junior year (age 10) whilst boys' preparatory schools start at Lower First Form (age 8) and end at Lower Third Form (age 11). Thus, boys will often go to a pre-preparatory school for their first three years of education, from the age of 5 at Infants year, to Bottom Junior year and to Top Junior year, before starting at a preparatory school. Some older boys' independent schools start at the age of 10 as well and hence boys' sometimes leave at Lower Second Form.
Girls' independent senior schools begin at the age of 11 and follow a standard First Form, Second Form &c. structure, ending at the Upper Sixth Form, the equivalent of Fifth Form in the state system.
On the other hand, boys' independent and public schools follow a variety of different structures. Many schools will start in Upper Third and progress all the way to Upper Sixth. Most older schools start in Third Form (or Form III as it is more commonly known), progress to Fourth Form, then to the Remove, Fifth Form and then Lower and Upper Sixth. A small number of older schools start at the age of 10, with First Form, Second Form, Third Form, Fourth Form, Remove, Lower Fifth Form, Upper Fifth Form and then Lower and Upper Sixth Form, or any other arrangement of lowers, uppers and removes between Fourth Form and Fifth Form. Some schools go from Sixth Form to Top Form, where Sixth-formers are the youngest and the Top-formers the highest. Some schools start in First Form at the age of 12, where it thus follows the state model. Some schools have unique names for certain forms, such as Under Form at Purling School for Second Form, and the Box for the Third Form at a number of schools.
Up to 40 per cent of all senior school pupils go to independent schools, with it being mostly the working class attending state schools with nearly all middle class and upper class able to send their children to independent or common schools.
After schooling years
After school, for working and middle class girls, obtaining a job is normally desired. This may be in domestic service, in public service, or under tutelage from a mistress in various crafts. Some young women of aptitude become school mistresses. Some girls simply stay at home until they are married, which is the case for most aristocratic girls.
For boys, there is generally the choice of apprenticeship, work or university. Most boys will likely work in the same occupation as their fathers, be it farming, factory work or similar. Apprenticeships with a master are also common, to gain freedom of a guild or compagnie. Poorer men will often need to complete their national service first before either choosing to remain in the forces or find other work. The middle class and aristocracy generally will often go to university to read for their Bachelor and/or Master of Arts, with careers such as bankers, accountants, politics, teachers, surgeons and apothecaries, and possibly thereafter high degrees for a future in the courts, in the church, in academia, or in medicine.
Professional colleges and bodies
In Great Nortend, the right to administor or oversee many professions is bestowed on a number of independent bodies which usually are incorporated by Royal Charter. These include local and national trade guilds, royal colleges and the church.
The Royal College of Physicians
The Royal College of Physicians is the national college regulating the practice of physicians. Though any person is able to administer or prescribe medical treatment from non-prescription medicines or practices, only those physicians licensed by the college are able to call themselves physicians. Medical students must first graduate from university with a medical degree of at least the rank of Bachelor of Physic or Medicine, which usually takes around six years (three years for the Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts and another three years for the Bachelor of Physic). Afterwards, they must train in a teaching hospital for actual practical medical training, having been taught medical theory in university. Finally, with the concurrence of their supervisor in hospital, they may sit the examinations which include both practical observation and a theory component to receive the Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, which also requires that the sitter pray to the archbishop for the licence, as the College licenses to practise physic under the authority of the bishop. They then may be inducted as a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (F.C.Phy.). Furthermore, they are not entitled to be called 'Doctor' until they obtain a Doctorate of Physic or Medicine, which in the Nortan universities requires either the publication and successful defence of a thesis or the continuous practice of physic in a hospital, specialisation or general practice, for a period of at least three years (four years for Rhise), without serious error or inadequecy.
General practitioners, who also require a background in surgery, thus typically hold the post nominal letters: D.M. L.C.Phy. L.C.T.Ch.
The Most Honourable Compagnie of Barber-Surgeons
The Most Honourable Compagnie of Barber-Surgeons is the worshipful compagnie guild of Lendert-with-Cadell that regulates and licenses the trade of the surgeon. Surgeons traditionally and still to this day do not require degrees in physic or medicine. However, since the 19th century, surgeons require at least a Master of Arts. Training as a surgeon occurs in teaching hospitals, similar to that of a medical student, and is essentially the same process as for becoming a physician. Successful completion of an examination including practical surgery and theory, as well as prayer to the archbishop as for physic, results in the award of either the Licentiate of the Most Honourable Compagnie of Barber-Surgeons (L.C.T.Ch.)in their specific field, be it specialised surgery or general practice, which is awarded only to physicians already holding the Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians who have entered into general practice.
The Royal College of Praeceptors
The Royal College of Praeceptors is the national college regulating the teaching profession under Royal charter. Prospective teachers, both male and female, are required to hold certain qualifications in order to gain the status of a student praeceptor.
These qualifications include a School Certificate with at least four 'Excellents', or the degree of Bachelor of Arts, or having taught in a junior school for at least four years with a letter of reference from the headmaster (who must be a fellow himself). Once this status is gained, the student praeceptor will learn the principles of pedagogy, curriculum and discipline at a normal school.
He or she then will begin a year or more of practical training as a student praeceptor at a senior school (state or independent) before sitting a final examination to receive the Licentiate of the Royal College of Praeceptors.
The licence of the college is required for employment as a senior school 'regent grammar master' under statute (as distinguished from a mere schoolmaster of a junior school which has no legal qualification requirements) unless the person holds the degree of Master of Arts. Most schools require the licence even if the person is a Master of Arts. Many independent schools and common schools also require fellowship in addition to higher degrees.
Calendar and years
The calendar used in Great Nortend is the Gregorian calendar, however years are determined in one of four ways. These are the civil year, the regnal year, the Gregorian year, and the liturgical year.
These are Michaelmas (29th of September), Stephenmas (26th of December), Lady Day (25th of March) and St John's Day (24th of June). They correspond roughly to the Autumn equinox, Winter solstice, Spring equinox and Summer solstice respectively, being around a week or so off. They also mark the terms of the civil year which run from between the term days. The terms are known as Michaelmas term, Hilary term, Whitsun term and Marymas term.
There are also quarter days, which lie in between term days. These are Candlemas (2nd of February), Roodmas (3rd of May), Petermas (1st of August) and Hallowmas (1st of November). The periods between these days mark the seasons.
The civil calendar is used for legal, government and academic purposes. For example, the Quarter Sessions are held on the week of the four quarter days. Debts and rent is often due by a term day. Schools, Parliament and universities, along with the Courts of the King's Chamber and the Common Bench follow this calendar as well, with the former three typically employing Michaelmas, Hilary and Whitsun terms only, with Marymas term being the long holiday. The terms as used do not correspond directly to these idealised terms. For example, the judicial Michaelmas sitting ends on St Lucy's Day whilst the Easter term for schools, universities and the courts all end on Maundy Thursday.
Since assent to the Determination of Years and Terms Act 2 Edm. VI p. 34, terms begin on the closest numerically first day of the month after the traditional term day, viz. the 1st of April, the 1st of July, the 1st of October and the 1st of January. The time periods between Lady Day and the 1st of April, St John's Day and the 1st of July, St Michael's Day and the 1st of October, and St Stephen's Day and the 1st of January, are known as the inter-term days and are considered to be attached to the term they precede, although not forming part of it. Thus although Michaelmas occurs on the 29th of September, the civil year begins on the 1st of October, 2 days after.
The regnal year is rarely used except in the dating of legal documents. It begins for a given monarch on the date of their accession to the Crown. The current regnal year is the 17th year of the reign of Alexander the Second, which began on the 1st of October, AD 2019 and will end on the 30th of September, AD 2020. It is generally noted in short form in the form 17 Alex. II which means '17th year' of the reign of 'Alexander the Second'. In Latin, it is written 'Anno Septo Decimo Alexandri Regis'. The most common use of regnal years is in the title of Acts of Parliament, Orders in Council, Letters Patent, writs &c.
The Gregorian year is the 'normal year' that begins on the 1st of January and ends on the 31st of December. It is the year used when quoting years in the standard format, and is the assumed year when one speaks of specific years.
The liturgical year is the official year of the Church. The liturgical year is unique in that Sundays and certain solemnities (marked below with an asterisk) begin at sunset on the calendar day prior, at the canonical hour of Vespers, and run until Compline on the actual day, including the second Vespers which is then known as Eventide. Hence, Christmas Day, for example, begins at Vespers on the 24th of December and runs until Compline on the 25th of November, which is considered to be 'attached' to St Stephen's Day on the 26th.
The liturgical year begins on the first day of Advent, which is the fourth Sunday before Christmas. This period includes the feast days of St Nicholas, St Lucy and St Thomas.
Christmastide begins on Christmas Day* and lasts for twelve days, and includes the feast days of St Stephen, St John the Evangelist, Childerman and the Circumcision of the Lord.
Epiphanytide begins on the Epiphany of Our Lord*, on the 6th of January, and lasts 28 days, ending on Candlemas, or the Feast of the Presentation, on the 2nd of February, unless Septuagesima Sunday occurs prior. This period includes the feast days of St Hilary, St Edmund and of the Conversion of St Paul.
Ordinary Time may thereafter begin after Candlemas* until Septuagesima Sunday. During this time, the feast of St Matthias may possibly be observed.
Shrovetide begins on Septuagesima Sunday and includes Sexagesima Sunday, Quinquagesima Sunday, Coddy Monday and Shrove Tuesday.
Lent begins on Ash Wednesday, the day after Shrove Tuesday. It lasts for 40 days, excluding Sundays, and ends on Holy Saturday*. The feasts of St Matthias, the Annunciation (Lady Day)*, Palm Sunday, St Joseph*, and St George may be observed during Lent. Good Friday* is observed on the Friday before Easter. Passiontide forms the last two weeks of Lent, beginning on the 5th Sunday of Lent, known as Passion Sunday and ending on Holy Saturday* together with Lent. Holy Week is the week before Easter Day.
Eastertide begins on Easter Day* and lasts for seven weeks, until the Trinity Sunday. Rogation Day on St Mark's Day is marked. The solemnities of the Ascension*, Whitsunday* are celebrated during Eastertide, as well as Holy Cross day.
Ordinary Time thereafter commences, on Trinity Sunday. The feasts of St Peter and Paul, St James, St Christopher, St Bartholomew, St Augustine, St Matthew, St Simon, St Jude, and St Michael and All Angels (Michaelmas)* are marked.
All Hallowtide commences on All Saints' Day* on the 1st of November, lasting until Hallow Sunday on the 8th.
Ordinary Time then recommences, and includes the feasts of St Martin (Martinmas), St Clement and St Andrew.
In Great Nortend are are four types of holiday, being customary law holidays, full holidays, bank holidays and half-holidays.
Customary law holidays are holidays by custom and are Christmas Day (25th of December) and Good Friday (as determined by Computusc). Most commercial businesses are required by court law to close on these two holidays. Both customary law holidays are also compulsory church attendance days and every one of His Majesty's full subjects are required to make reasonable effort to attend a service on this day.
Full holidays are enshrined in law in the Holy and Especial Days Act, 36 Cath. II, which superceded the 1893 act of the same name. Full holidays allow a servant of a company to not work on that day, except in certain exempted occupations such as constables, physicians, nurses, apothecaries, firemen, ambulancemen, utilities workers and railwaymen. The full holidays are: St Mark's Day (Rogation Day), St Christopher's Day (Hambria only), St Whimn's Day or Whimtould (Almeshire and South Heymeadshire), All Saints' Day, St Edmund's Day (Nortend and Cardoby only) and Holy Saturday.
Bank holidays are holidays that mean no person may be compelled to make a payment and when a payment made on the day thereafter would be equivalent in law as doing it on the day itself. On bank holidays, all banks normally close. Bank holidays are announced every year by Royal Proclamation. The closing of banks, and the de facto closure of government buildings (except the Post Office), courts and schools mean that most commercial businesses also choose to close on most of these days by not all. Bank holidays are governed by the Bank Holidays Act, 23 Geo. II, and are presently: Whit Monday, St Stephen's Day or Boxing Day, Easter Monday and Hock Tuesday.
Half-holidays are holidays given on certain holy days that give workers the right to attend a morning church service before going to work and are determined by Royal Proclamation. Half-holidays are also announced every year by Royal Proclamation and currently include Lady Day (considered to be the first day of the year), St George's Day, Ascension Day, St John's Day, St Martin's Day, Michaelmas, All Souls' Day, St Lucy's Day, Feast of the Circumcision, Epiphany, Candlemas, Ash Wednesday, Maundy Thursday and all Ember Days.
Holidays that fall on Sunday are not replaced by one on a Monday or Saturday. Saturday is a shorter working day, normally ending at 3 pm instead of 6 pm. Other days celebrated, though not being holidays per se, include May Day, Whitsunday on which the occasion of the King's Birthday is celebrated, St Peter and Paul's Day, St James's Day, Lammas, Harvest Sunday, Hallow Sunday, St Nicholas's Day, Plough Monday and Easter Sunday.
In Great Nortend, there are variety of taxes levied on persons as well as corporations. The most common taxes are income tax, corporation tax, parochial rates, building tax and church tax.
Personal income tax is levied very simply as a marginal tax. For taxable income from up to £500, there is an income tax of a florin in a pound (10 per cent). From £500 to £1000, there is a rate of a double florin in a pound (20 per cent). From £1000 to £1500 there is a rate of three florins in a pound (30 per cent). From £1500 or greater, there is a rate of two double florins in a pound (40 per cent).
Stamp duty is a tax levied on legal documents. The rate varies, from a penny per personal cheque to a duty of a shilling in a pound for real estate transfers. Whilst the revenue collected on personal cheques is low (only around £25,000 in total over six million cheques), the total revenues for stamp duty is over £100,000 annually.
Building tax is a tax on residential premises collected twice a year. It consists of a flat rate of six shillings per house. An additional sixpence is payable for each window in a house with between 10 and 15, and ninepence for every window in a house with 16 to 25 and a shilling for every window in a house with 26 or above. Chimney tax is also payable for houses with two chimneys (or fireplaces) or more, at a levy of sixpence each.
Consumption taxes are levied on a large range of goods. The excises on salt, alcohol, petrol and cotton are the major consumption taxes. Salt is taxed at 2d per ounce. With salt consumption being one of the highest in the world per capita, at a total of 120,000 tons of salt yearly, the excise equates to total government revenues from salt alone at £26,880,000. The alcohol excise is a rate of 18d per quart of pure alcohol. The petrol excise is twopenny per gallon of unleaded petrol. The cotton excise is £1·2·0 per hundredweight of cotton fabric.
Parochial rates, or tithes, are collected a rate of shilling eightpence in a pound out of tithable income which excludes investment dividends and the like. Traditionally tithes were split into 'great tithes', being corn, young of livestock, wood, hay, and wool, and 'lesser tithes' being personal income (exclusing investments, gifts, inheritances and the like), eggs, fruit, wax, linen &c. This continues to this day, however payment in the form of goods is nearly always replaced with payment in money. The remaining fourpence out of the traditional tenth of the income is the church tax, which is collected by H. M. Exchequer on behalf of the church. There is an upper limit of 15/6 for the church tax. If this limit is reached, any excess is allocated to parochial rates. Tithes are levied on income after income tax and building tax.
Paupers who have sworn the pauper's oath are exempt from most taxes and rates, excluding consumption taxes.
The rules for giving children Christian names form part of the Queen's Clergymen's Rules, as children are only given Christian names when they are christened and are considered a matter of customary law, supported by court law. The clergyman who officiates at the baptism or christening, is required to consider the following rules when naming a child. For those persons who are not christened at birth, their parents may register the child's name with the Clerk's Department.
- 1. Names must not affect titles or honours. Thus, a person may not be christened 'Master', 'Sir', 'Lord', 'Earl', 'King', 'Duke', 'Prince', 'Justice' or 'Tipstaff', as examples, though many are acceptable surnames.
2. Names must use the full form of names, with no hypocorisms permitted. 'Ben', 'Jim', 'Tom', 'Max', 'Polly' or similar are not allowed, and they must be christened 'Benjamin', 'James', 'Thomas', 'Maxwell/Maxmillian' and 'Margaret'.
3. Frivolous or fanciful spellings are not permitted, however diacritics are permitted within reason.
4. Names must have a clear accepted pronunciation.
5. Names associated with proscribed religions are forbidden. 'Mohammed' or its variants are not permitted.
6. A christian name must not include the name of a saint (which is reserved for one's confirmation name). Thus, 'John St Andrew Peters' would not be permitted as a christening name.
The surname of a child is a matter of statute law, which provides that a child must inherit the surname of his father unless:
1. His father is unknown, in which case he may adopt his mother's surname or an occupational (of his father if known)
2. His father agrees to compound his surname with that of the mother.
3. The father does not have a surname, in which case 'Fitz + father's name' may be assumed, or 'de + birthplace'.
4. A court of competent jurisdiction orders that a child adopt a particular name, typically used in the case of foundlings, in the form of a writ nominari facias (that you cause [the child] to be named)
Coming from another country, foreigners may find the road signs used in Great Nortend to be confusing and hard to understand. This chapter attempts to show and explain the most common types of road signs one may find on the streets and roads of Great Nortend.
Most road signs are composed of a tall, striped, black-and-white post surmounted by a sign and possibly with additional signs being fixed to the post thereunder. Some signs are fixed upon walls or are suspended from wires. Signs are are made of cast iron, sometimes with reflecting dots in order so that by the light of carriage lamps a sign may be perceived during the darkness of the night. With the prevalance of horse-drawn traffic, road signs are not as important as in other countries however do still exist to regulate horse-drawn traffic, locomotive traffic, motor traffic and manual-traffic such as bicycles and handcarts.
Road signs of the same type can generally be combined upon the same post, however there is a maximum of four signs on a post. Road signs are read top to bottom, with the most important information at the top.
Regulatory signs are marked by a red circle, which may be open or closed.
Positive regulatory signs which allow or prescribe actions have an open red ring with a subsidiary plate attached underneath. The most common ones are signs regulating speed and prescribing required movements.
Negative regulatory signs which forbid an action to occur have a closed red circle with a subsidiary plate attached underneath. Examples may be seen to the right, which include the forbidding of cycling of turns.
Parking signs are another type of regulatory sign in that they regulate the waiting of vehicles, which include horse-drawn vehicles and motorised. It is taken that waiting is generally permitted provided there is enough space and that it would not cause an undue or extreme inconvenience for the public. A waiting sign permits or proscribes waiting fifty yards left and right of the sign, unless otherwise signed.
Waiting limited signs show when waiting is permitted. It is taken to mean that at any other time, unless otherwise signed, waiting is not permitted. No waiting signs are more common and prohibit waiting, often only during certain times.
Warning signs are marked by a red open triangle with a subsidiary plate underneath. They warn of dangers that the driver ought to be careful of such as hidden roads, steep hills and hump-backed bridges, or of unexpected conditions ahead, such as a checkpoint, a school or a level crossing. Examples may be seen to the right.
Most warning signs do possess a pictogram along with text and these can be readily deceiphered should they pose troubling by reading the text underneath.
Slow signs are marked by a red ring with a triangle within it. These require the driver or coachman to slow down and halt if required at the intersection, junction &c. ahead , and effectively warns the driver of a road (triangle) and prescribes an action (ring).
Halt signs are a plain red disc, with or without the words 'HALT' written on them that forbid passage past it whilst the sign is shewn. They are usually found on level crossing gates, on hand-held signs and in other places where temporary haltage is required. 'NO ENTRY' signs are similar to halt signs however they are permanent.
These signs may be seen to the left.
Motor vehicles make only a small fraction of the total number of vehicles registered in Great Nortend, with there being fewer than 240,000 registered motor vehicles of all types and descriptions. A large number of these are motor omni-buses (which have replaced horse-drawn omnibuses in most towns), and commercial vehicles of other types such as lorries and vans. Only a small number of private motor cars exist, a number around 80,000.
Driving a motor vehicle
To be legally permitted to drive any sort of motor vehicle, there are a number of necessities which one must obtain. These are:
Certificate of Highway Theory
Certificate of Driving Ability
Motor vehicle duty
Third-party motor vehicle insurance
A Certificate of Highway Theory is a one hour long written examination that tests the sitter's knowledge of road rules and the Highway Code. It includes identifying the meanings of various signs, policeman signals, permitted actions, maximum speeds and other aspects of driving theory. Two sample questions are below.
1. Explain clearly the difference in meaning between a road sign surmounted by a solid red circle and one surmounted by an open red circle.
Answer: The former road sign is a prohibition road sign that prohibits an action whilst the latter is an order road sign that gives a mandatory order which must be obeyed.
2. What documents must any driver carry with him when driving on a public highway?
Answer: A driver must carry with him or in his vehicle his duty documents, and Certificate of Highway Theory. If driving a motor vehicle, he must also carry with him or in his vehicle his Certificate of Driving Ability, and his motor vehicle insurance documents.
It costs ten shillings twopence to sit the exam, which is taken locally and supervised by a Board of Roads officer. Every person wishing to drive any vehicle, be it horse-drawn or motorised, must sit the examination. It has a pass rate of around 85 percent.
A Certificate of Driving Ability is a two hour long practical examination that tests the sitter's ability to drive a motor vehicle. It involves driving with an assessor in a well-populated a town or city and executing various manoeuvers and showing knowledge and understanding of how to operate a motor vehicle, the road rules, and the Highway Code.
It costs £10·10 to take it and has a pass rate of just 64 percent, out of perhaps the 1800 people who take the examination a year, mostly for occupation reasons.
A motor vehicle duty is levied upon every motor vehicle to be driven upon a public highway every two years at one's local Board of Roads office. Motor vehicle duty is one of the largest expenses in owning and operating a motor vehicle and can cost upwards of £30. The current costs of the tax are listed below.
Number plate: £1·5·0 (one-time cost)
Private motor car (more than 1 tons unladen): £38·7·6
Private motor car (less than 1 tons unladen): £20·3·9
Commercial motor vehicle (more than 2 tons unladen): £23·5·0
Commercial motor vehicle (less than 2 tons unladen): £15·10·6
Motor taxi-cab: £5·10·6
Motor omnibus: £5·10·6
Governmental motor vehicle: £4·0·6
Crown motor vehicle: £0·0·0
Motor vehicle insurance is also required from a commercial insurance company. This can range in cost and must at least cover compensation and medical costs for up to two victims of a collision.
Under the Carta Erboniae Libertatum, or the Charter of the Liberties of the Erbonians, issued by King Edward, there are the following rights:
- The rights of the church to tithes
The right of advowson
The right for commoners to plea
The right to swift justice for all
The right to be tried by one's equals
The right to an appropriate sentence for offences
The right to move without seeking one's lord's permission
The right of tenure
The right to not be unlawfully imprisoned
The right of appeal
The right of petition
Other rights that have either by customary and court law (indicated by an asterisk) or through the Statute of Limmes and other laws are present in Great Nortend include:
The right of free men over the age of majority to vote
The right of maidens and spinsters over the age of majority to vote
The right to the freedom of speech of non-criminal nature*
The right to the freedom of thought*
The right of the freedom to report *
The right of the freedom to assemble peacefully*
The right to protest peacefully*
The right to light*
The right of way over footpaths*
The right of commoners to estovers*
The right to be indicted by a jury of indictment for felonies
The right to be presented to the court for presentment for misdemeanours
The right for Erbonian Protestants to bear arms for their defence
The right to be represented in court*
The right of baptised Nortans to confession and receive communion*
The right to refuse impressment to the Navy
The right to be subject only to taxes authorised by Parliament
The right to an appropriate bail
The right to legal marriage*
There are no rights of
- Freedom from discrimination based on sex or age
Freedom from discrimination based on race or religion
Freedom of divorce
The Legal System
Great Nortend has a legal system founded upon Nortan customary law, Hambrian customary law, court law and Anglo-Saxon law. The system is split into customary and court law, canon law and martial and admiralty law which is administered by a group of twenty types of court. Historically, justice was dealt by hundreds of courts convened by feudal lords, the remnants of which still remain today in the form of the manor courts and the courts of the Gardolian duchies. Courts nowadays are established according to statute law, including the Royal Courts Act as well as numerous charters for local courts.
The normal system of law as practised in the criminal and civil courts is a form of the adversarial system where barristers, advocates and sergeants-at-law present arguments which is then decided by a jury or in the case of appeals courts or senior courts, by the bench. The judge's main role is to sentence and to control the court's proceedings. The judge may also question witnesses and call witnesses and ask questions of the parties. The judge can also order a party to produce evidence or introduce evidence given to him, though this is rarely exercised.
Criminal cases are prosecuted by the Crown or a private subject against a defendant, known as the accused or prisoner (when in court or in custody). The prosecutor, normally the Attorney General on behalf of the Crown, will deliver either a bill of presentment or a bill of indictment to the petty sessions in the former case and to the quarter sessions in the latter case. A private subject would instead make an appeal of felony to a justice of the King's Chamber in court. A private subject may not prosecute a misdemeanour.
In the case of a presentment, the court itself will determine whether there is probable cause to try the accused. If so, the court will then issue a writ of venire facias ad respondendum to order the sheriff to bring the accused to the court to respond to the charges on a certain day. Usually, if the Sheriff believes that the accused will attend or is already in custody, this is all that is needed. If the accused fails to appear, a writ of distringas may be obtained. If this fails also, a writ of capias ad respondendum will be issued in order for the Sheriff to capure the accused and bring him before the court, which also may be issued if the person be on the run or immediately dangerous to the public.
In the case of indictment, the bill will be presented to a jury of indictment at the next quarter sessions or assizes. If a majority believe there is sufficient evidence to proceed, the bill will be certified as a true bill. Else, if fewer than a majority believe such, 'ignoramus' will be written upon it. Upon a successful indictment, the court will issue immediately a writ of venire facias ad respondendum if the accused be in custody already, or otherwise a writ of capias ad respondendum. If the accused still fails to attend, if the indictment be not for a felony or homicide, the writ will be issued again and again. If, after three times the accused still fails to be captured, a writ of exigi facias and proclamation will be made to declare the accused an outlaw if he not show himself within five days. If, after five days, he still not appear, the court will issue a writ of capias ut lagatum declaring the accused an outlaw that may be shot upon sight.
For all temporal criminal cases, there can be one of five results. The main verdicts are that the defendant is found to be filed convict, filed acquit, clean acquit, and judged by God alone. There may also be a no verdict at all. All but 'filed convict' are acquittals. In ecclesiastical and admiralty cases, the verdicts used are pronounced by the judge, and are either 'guilty' or 'not guilty'. In the coroner's court, there are many verdicts as to the cause of death, including death by unlawful death, lawful death, suicide, act of God, old age, misadventure or neglect. Coroners may also declare verdicts open. In cases of treasure, or deaths of royal animals, the coroner may return verdicts as pertinent.
For a civil case, no case can begin without the King's writ, a principle espoused in the phrase, 'Non potest quis sine brevi agere', except in the manor courts. A plaintiff in personal cases or a demandant in real cases must obtain a writ from the chancery to begin an action against the defendant or tenant. If the defendant or tenant fails to appear, a writ of distringas may be issued and thereafter a writ of capias ad respondendum. The result of a civil trial, is typically either that the defendant has good cause and reason or no good cause or reason, in response to the writ of action which all require that the defendant either do some act or attend court to show good cause and reason why he has not done so.
Prisoner or Accused: If a person arrested for a misdemeanour, and presentment has succeeded, the accused will be brought to face the court either by the Sheriff if in custody or by himself if not upon the date provided in the writ of venire facias. The accused is to dress in his own clothing unless he consents to the wearing of prison uniform. Upon arrival at court, he will be taken to the tipstaff and sent to a waiting room to wait until he is called. The tipstaff will come and collect the accused when his case is to be heard. A person arrested for a felony will be in gaol on remand, unless on bail, and will be brought to face the court by the Sheriff or Tipstaff himself. He will be sent to the court cells, rather than in the waiting room, and is known as a prisoner, however all other elements are the same. The prisoner or the accused is always addressed in the third person by the judge. He is present in court in the dock, with a tipstaff's officer.
Judge and Magistrate: The judge or magistrate controls the proceedings of the hearing or trial. He does not have a gavel, unlike some judges in other countries. He sits at a high bench below the royal coat of arms and his own coat of arms if he possesses one. The judge dresses depending on his rank and the type of court he is sitting in, however always wears a wig and robes of some sort. He is addressed a variety of ways, including 'My Lord', 'Your Worship' and 'Your Honour'. A recorder or warden of the peace serves as a judge in some cases.
Tipstaff: The Tipstaff is a senior court clerk. In the higher courts, each judge has his own tipstaff however in the lower courts one or two may be shared. The tipstaff is responsible for assisting the judges, carrying documents, finding case records, assigning cases to judges, helping him to dress, serving tea &c. He also is responsible for conveying prisoners to court. He wears a sober suit with bands, wing collar and bicorn hat, and carries a tipped staff, the symbol of his office.
Foreman: The jury foreman is the head of the jury. He liases with the Usher in ensuring the jury operates efficiently. As he is part of the jury, he wears his normal formal clothes. He is addressed 'Mr Foreman'.
Usher: The Usher is a senior courtroom clerk. He administers oaths, assists the jury, hands out evidence copies and acts as a conduit between the judge, the jury, witnesses and the prisoner by passing messages. In court, he wears a long stuff gown, bands, wing collar and clerk's wig. He is addressed 'Mr Usher'.
Stenographer: The Stenographer is a courtroom clerk, often an unmarried woman, taking shorthand. She wears any sober dress, with jabot. She is addressed 'Miss Clerkess'.
King's Counsel: The King's Counsel is a senior counsel, ranking above the High Advocate and below the Serjeant-at-Law. In court, he wears a black silk gown, bands, wing collar and a barrister's wig. He is addressed 'Mr X' or by a higher title.
Utter Barrister: The Utter Barrister is a junior counsel, ranking lowest in the ranks of counsel. In court, he wears a stuff short gown, bands, wing collar and a barrister's wig. The utter barrister is addressed 'Mr X' or by a higher title.
Serjeant-at-Law: The Serjeant-at-Law is the most senior of counsel, ranking highest. In court he wears a black silk gown, a scarlet silk and lambskin cape, bands, wing collar, long wig and coif. He is addressed 'Mr Serjeant X' or by a higher title.
Solicitor: The Solicitor is the junior-most writer-at-law. In court he wears a stuff short gown, bands and wing collar but no wig. He is addressed 'Mr X' or by a higher title.
Scrivener: The Scrivener is the senior-most writer-at-law. In court he wears a silk gown, bands and wing collar, but no wig. He is addressed 'Mr X' or by a higher title.
In Great Nortend, there are two types of what may be all termed lawyers. The former appear in court on behalf of their clients, acting in legal terms as the 'narratour'. The latter administers the legal processes, draughting documents, pleadings &c. and are known as 'writers'. In practical terms, there are in fact two types of narratour and writer each—the barrister and advocate, and the attorney and proctour.
Barristers and attorneys practise in the regular courts : the Eyre, the King's Chamber and the Common Chamber. Senior barristers are appointed Serjeants-at-Law, and have additionally the right to appear before the Great Council and the Court of the Ermine Office. Most attorneys style themselves as 'solicitors and attorneys' as they have the right to 'solicit' the officers of the Court
Advocates and proctours practise in the civil law courts : the Ecclesiastical Courts, Courts-Martial, and the Court of the Constable and Marischal. They also have the right of audience before the Great Council.
Justices of the Common Chamber and the King's Chamber are customarily chosen from the ranks of Serjeants-at-law. Lords Justice also are drawn from the ranks of Serjeants.
Traditionally in Great Nortend, reading law at university is not required to gain a licence to practise from the Archbishop in order to practise as a solicitor or proctour. They first must be apprenticed to a solicitor or proctour for up to five years before they are admitted to that position.
Otherwise, a university graduate with the B.LL. may undertake pupillage under a serjeant or barrister in order to be called to the bar. Since around the 18th century, holding a law degree reduces the amount of time needed to gain a licence to practise. An advocate is required to hold a Doctor of Laws (D.LL.) and is admitted into St Thomas's Cloisters by examination.
Membership into the Order of Serjeants is at the pleasure of the Sovereign, advised by the Governours, Masters, Lords and Serjeants of each cloisters.
Language in the courts of Great Nortend is quite formal and rigid, though less so in the sessions. There are a number of fixed expressions and phrasing that are standard in argument (known as submissions) and general use. These include, substituting 'Your Worship', 'Your Honour' and 'Your Majesty' as required:
- 'May it please the Court' or 'May it please Your Lordship' to request permission to begin a submission. The judge will then reply, 'Thank you', eliciting a bow from counsel, before the oral submission may proceed.
'I am His Majesty's Counsel for the Crown, with junior counsel Mr X, prosecuting this case. Our learned friend, Mr Y is defencing, with his learned colleague, Mr Z', to introduce afterwards. Those counsel named rise as they are mentioned and bow. The Crown (or prosecution or plaintiff) always begins first. The judge will respond with something like, 'Thank you, Mr W', which elicits another bow. No more bows are generally required until adjournment.
'Your Lordship's attention is directed to', to suggest the judge to look at something such as a statement or affidavit
'We submit', rather than 'We believe' or 'We think'
'We are obliged, My Lord', for favourable judgment. Never say, 'Thank you'.
'As Your Lordship pleases', for unfavourable judgment.
'We beg Your Lordship's indulgence', to introduce a possibly odd line of questioning.
'If it pleases Your Lordship, I shall endeavour to outline the case (for the benefit of the jury)/(for the court's benefit)'.
'With your leave, My Lord, I wish to call XXX', to ask to call a witness. The judge will invariably, unless there is a problem, assent by saying, 'Admit him/her, Mr Usher'.
'My Lord, may Mr/Mrs/Miss XXX tell the Court,...', to question a witness. Supplementary questions may be made directly without padding, but always in the third person. 'And did Mrs Smith understand the directive?' 'Is Mrs Smith knowledgable of these matters?'
'Our learned friend', to refer to opposite barristers
'Our friend', to refer to opposite solicitors, scriveners and proctors
'Our right learned friend', to refer to opposite serjeants and advocates
'Our learned/right learned colleague', to refer to counsel on one's own side
'Our learned friend appears to have not been properly instructed', or
'My Lord, our learned friend may require some time to uncover the facts of the matter', or
'Our learner friend's submission is not borne out by the records', to claim opposite counsel is telling falsehoods
Narrators in the Nortan courts must join what are known as 'cloisters of court' in order to practise. There are seven cloisters of court, being Henry's Cloisters, St Thomas's Cloisters, Penforth Cloisters, Outer Cloisters, King's Cloisters, St Andrew's Cloisters and St Christopher's Cloisters. Penforth and Outer Cloisters are located in Rhise whilst the other five are located in Lendert-with-Cadell, all within the Inner Ward.
The cloisters, which are formally termed 'The Right and Honourable Compagnie of Men at Law', 'The Right and Honourable Compagnie of Saint Thomas the Apostle', 'The Worshipful Compagnie at Penforth of the Men of Law', 'The Honourable Compagnie of Men at Law' and 'The Right and Honourable Compagnie of Saint Christopher', all have roots deep into the mediaeval period as inns or as they were historically known, 'closes'.
Nowadays, the cloisters are the professional societies for members of the legal profession. Historically Henry's Cloisters were exclusive to the serjeants; however, nowadays they are open to barristers and solicitors as well and serjeants are spread throughout the cloisters, except at St Thomas's. Though in theory all cloisters except Henry's Cloisters accept advocates and proctours, all advocates and proctours are fellows of St Thomas's Cloisters by tradition.
The cloisters provide lodgings, chambers, meals, libraries and clerks for their fellows, who all are allocated a personal chamber for their use when they are in Lendert. Judges and justices appointed from the ranks of serjeants retain fellowship of their cloister.
The sins of homosexuality
Homosexual knowledge is illegal in Great Nortend. It is a felonious crime for a man to carnally know any other man. The punishment is, since the review of capital sentences, imprisonment for up to twenty years, with the requirement of chastity for another ten years, although it is still technically a capital crime. Furthermore, it is a misdemeanour for a man to engage in indecent sexual acts with another man.
Despite this, it is not illegal for men to love each other, with it being perfectly legal, and indeed with royal precedent, for two unrelated men to co-habitate in a relationship as long as they do not know each other. Indeed, all women have no such restrictions and may perfectly legally engage in such acts should they manage to find a way.
As a result of the criminalisation of homosexual knowledge, and the social expectation that marriage involves knowledge, there is no legal or social recognition of same-sex unions at all. Marriage is not possible for same-sex couples, nor is adoption.
Most crimes can be classified into one of five categories. A typical punishment is listed below, however technically all crimes can be punished by unlimited fines, unlimited prison terms and unlimited (legal) punishment, including forfeiture of land, attainder, distraint, the stocks, pillory, flogging, ducking, branding, conscription and whipping. The definition of the crimes below are set by precedent and custom.
Capital crimes: capital punishment, with or without whipping or flogging, with or without a period in a pillory, with or without attaintment.
High felonies: penal servitude for a term not less than ten years, or imprisonment for a term not less than twenty years, with or without a period in a pillory not greater than twenty-four hours, with or without whipping or flogging, or forteiture.
Felonies: penal servitude for a term not greater than ten years or imprisonment for a term not greater than twenty years, with or without a period in a pillory not greater than twelve hours, with or without whipping, or forteiture.
Great Misdemeanours: imprisonment for any term not greater than five years, or penal servitude for any term not greater than one year, or payment of a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds, with or without a period in stocks not greater than twelve hours, with or without whipping.
Misdemeanours: imprisonment for any term not greater than two years, or payment of a fine not exceeding sixty pounds, or public service for a term not greater than five years, with or without a period in stocks not greater than six hours.
Infractions: a fine not exceeding thirty pounds or imprisonment for any term not greater than a month with or without or a period in stocks not greater than six hours
Offences against the peace
Forsteal ; capital crime ; the unlawful compassed ambush killing with arms of another without defence
Murder ; capital crime ; the unlawful compassed killing of another
Manslaughter ; varies ; the unlawful killing of another
High treason ; capital crime ; criminal disloyalty to the Sovereign and his Government
Petty treason ; capital crime ; murder of a superior by a subordinate
Forgery ; great misdemeanour, felony or high felony ; the false making or alteration of a legal instrument to defraud
Counterfeiting ; felony or high felony ; the unlawful imitation of currency, specie, bullion or similar witht he intent to defraud
Fraud ; felony or high felony ; the deliberate deception of others to gain unlawful or unfair gain or to deprive someone of his rights
Cheating ; misdemeanour or great misdemeanour ; the acting with deliberate dishonesty to obtain unlawfullyprejudice the proprietary rights of another
Espionage ; felony or high felony ; the unlawful act of obtaining secret information in order to help the enemy
Mischief ; varies ; the unlawful damage, alteration, defacement or destruction of the property of another
Affray ; misdemeanour or great misdemeanour; the fighting of two people as to effect fear in bystanders
Riot ; felony or high felony; a violent disturbance in public against the King's peace
Arson ; felony ; the wilful or reckless burning of a building owned by another
High arson ; high felony ; the wilful burning of a building place as to endanger life
Perjury; felony ; the swearing of a false oath in a court
Eavesdropping ; misdemeanour or great misdemeanour ; the stealthy and unlawful listening to a private conversation in a private place without consent
Scolding ; misdemeanour or great misdemeanour ; the being of a public nuisance of a woman habitually engaged in quarrelsome behaviour
Burglary ; felony ; the unlawful breaking and entering of a house at night in order to commit a crime
Compounding a felony ; great misdemeanour ; the unlawful taking of consideration to hamper or infuriate the prosecution of a felony
Compounding treason ; felony or high felony ; the unlawful taking of consideration to hamper or infuriate the prosecution of high treason
Larceny ; felony ; the unlawful capture and asportation of the personal property of another
Contempt of court ; varies ; the disobedience to a lawful declaration, demand, order of a court
Contempt of Parliament ; varies ; the disobedience to a lawful declaration, demand, order of Parliament
Contempt of the Crown ; varies ; the disobedience to a lawful declaration, demand, order or Act of the Sovereign
Offences against the person
Rape ; felony or high felony ; with emission of seed by a man, penetration of a man's wife, a widow or a virgin without consent.
Adultery ; felony ; the unlawful obtaining of carnal knowledge of a man's wife without his permission
Common assault ; misdemeanour ; threatening by words or attempting to commit battery
Common battery ; great misdemeanour ; actual bodily contact occasioning bodily harm
Grievous battery ; felony ; actual bodily contact occasioning grievous bodily harm
Mayhem ; felony or high felony ; the unlawful mutilation, disfigurement or crippling of a person so as to deprive him of ability
Kidnap ; high felony ; the unlawful capture, asportation and confinement of a person
Abduction ; felony ; the unlawful capture and asportation of a person
Torture ; felony or high felony ; the unlawful subjection of a person to severe pain or punishment
An Act to regulate the production and distribution of postage stamps and to make standard the rate of postage throughout the Kingdom.
WHEREAS it is beneficial and worthwhile to the public that the production of postage stamps as revenue be regulated and for a basic rate of postage to be set across the Kingdom, in order to facilitate the transfer of the post in the most oeconomical and expedient fashion:
WE therefore do beseech your Majesty and BE IT ENACTED by the KING's most Excellent Majesty by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and of the Burgesses and Knights-of-the-Shire of the Parliament in this present Parliament assembled and by the Authority of the same as follows :
I. THAT this Act may be known by the Short Title of the ‘Stamps and Postage Act 21 Wil. II’.
II. THAT the production of postage stamps, that is to say, to wit, the printing gumming perforation or other processes directly affecting a the creation of postage stamp, shall be only undertaken by corporations compagnies organisations groups or persons authorised to do so by His Majesty with the advice of His Majesty's Privy Council and that the unlawful production or reproduction of postage stamps with the intent to defraud shall constitute and be determined to constitute the crime of forgery.
III. THAT postage stamps of the Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria shall only be sold bartered or distributed at premises or by persons authorised by His Majesty's Minister of the Crown or His Majesty with the advice of His Majesty's Privy Council subject to Section IV.
IV. THAT notwithstanding Section III it shall be legal for those persons not explicitly authorised by His Majesty's Minister of the Crown, unless explicitly forbidden, to sell, barter or otherwise distribute postage stamps in the cases of :
a. The sale of postage stamps via the sending of money or money cheques through the postal system.
b. The sale of postage stamps outside of His Majesty's Realms.
c. The sale of postage stamps by the King or an officer of the King or a servant of the King if and when told to do so by the King or an officer thereof.
d. The transfer of postage stamps in a non-commercial manner subject to Section IVA.
e. The transfer of a postage stamp through the accidental dispersal into the wild.
f. The transfer of postage stamps within an organisation, business or household.
g. The transfer of postage stamps through the use of a postage stamp affixed upon a postal article.
h. The sale of postage stamps at a licensed business authorised by the General Post Office.
IVA. THAT the terms of Section IV(d) define a non-commercial manner as a manner which does not result in any coinage or money or item being transferred in exchange or consideration.
V. THAT subject to Section VA postage stamps may be issued by His Majesty's Minister of the Crown in denominations of One Octave or One Farthing or One Halfpenny or Three Farthings or One Penny or Three Halfpence or Two Pence or Two and a Half Pence or Three Pence or Three and a Half Pence or Four Pence or Four and a Half Pence or Five Pence or Five and a Half Pence or Six Pence or Nine Pence or One Shilling and Two Shillings.
VA. THAT hitherto lawful postage stamps bearing denominations not included within Section V may continue to be issued until the first Day of January in the second year of His Majesty's Reign.
VI. THAT the rate of letter postage shall be, across the islands of Lesser Erbonia and Greater Erbonia and Cardoby and of other islands and isles of the Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria as of the passing of this bill One Penny subject to Section VIA until the His Majesty's Minister of the Crown or His Majesty with the advice of His Majesty's Privy Council may otherwise provide.
VIA. THAT for the purposes of Section VI the term letter postage shall be taken to mean the postage of a single sealed envelope containing papers or documents or similar materials that is less than eight ounces in weight of reasonable dimensions.
VII. THAT the rate of parcel postrage as of the passing of this bill shall be in pence where the value shall be the weight of a parcel weighed with calibrated scales at the point of postage in ounces rounded to the nearest quarter-ounce in the case where the weight of the aforementioned parcel is not less than eight ounces and where should a parcel be weighed to be eight ounces or less the payment of four pence shall be sought by His Majesty's Minister of the Crown.
VII. AND BE IT known that nothing in this Act shall impinge infringe affect diminish or otherwise alter any powers, privileges or abilities His Majesty may hold by virtue of his Royal Prerogative relating to the carriage of His Majesty's Mails and of the carriage of letters within His Majesty's Realms.