The Great Cross of the Realm
Population: 32 million
Land Area: 64,429 square miles
Capital City: Lendert-with-Cadell
Largest City: Greater Lendert
Languages: English, Barardian and Murish
Gentilics: See section
Royal Hymn: The King shall rejoice in thy strength
- Sovereign: His Majesty King Alexander II
- Lord High Steuard: The Earl of Barminster
- Lord High Chancellour: Bishop of Chepingstow
- Lord High Treasurer: The Duke of Limmes, the Prime Minister
Legislature: The Royal High Court of Parliament
- Upper House: The Noble House of Lords
- Lower Houses: The Honourable Houses of Commons incorporating:
- The House of Burgesses
The House of Knights
Currency: Pound Marten (£)
Time Zone: DMT
Drives on the Left
Calling code: +37
The Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria, commonly known as Great Nortend or Nortend, is an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Europe. The main landmass of the Kingdom, the islands of Greater and Lesser Erbonia, not including smaller islands, is 64,429 square miles in area. It has a population of 32 million. A predominantly pastoral country though with large swathes of forest, woodland, grassland, moor and heath, the Kingdom is mostly self-sustaining with some exports of corn, wool and textiles, with also a sizeable domestic industrial and manufacturing sector as well. Another island, Cardoby, occupies the largest island, oﬀ the coast of north-eastern Nortend.
Names and Gentilics
'Nortend' is from Old English, 'Norteland', meaning 'land of the Norch'. The name 'Hbrideland' derives from the local name for the land, Hmbride, which itself means literally 'The land of the Hs'. Thus, the name 'Hbrideland' effectively means 'H land land', a tautological construction. The more common name, 'Hambria', comes from the Latinised version of 'Hmbride'. The name 'Cardoby' is from Old English as well, literally meaning 'Island of the Cardes', as the island was the location of a Gardolian kingdom.
'Great Nortend' is the precise term for the entire country, encompassing both the two main islands, formally and poetically termed Erbonia from the Latin, 'Insula Erboniæ', as well as Cardoby, and the smaller islands and isles. 'Nortend' is often used to refer to what is really 'Great Nortend' in error and should be avoided.
The gentilic of Nortend is Norchman as a noun referring to persons and Nortan as an adjective. The gentilic of Hambria is Hambrian as an adjective and Hbridman as a noun referring to persons. The gentilic of Great Nortend is informally Nortan for both people and as an adjective, however the formal and poetic adjective is Erbonian, as in the King's formal diplomatic title, His Erbonian Majesty. The adjectival form of Cardoby is Gardolian whilst the term for a person from there is Cardman.
The Flag of the Kingdom
The country has been settled since antiquity by the Hs which were a group of tribes spread throughout the island, originating from the Continent with features of both the Teutonic and Celtic traditions. The famous 'Herfield man' has been carbon-dated back to 300,000 BC, though this is controversial. The population fluctuated greatly, however by 500 BC, a distinctive mix of Erbonian culture had emerged, speaking mostly a variety of Middle Erebbonic, a language related to the Insular Celtic Brittonic as well as elements of Gaulish and Western Proto-Germanic. Most lived in fairly stable settlements, often near water sources such as rivers or wells, farming the land. They held pagan beliefs, similar to the Frankish and British pagan religions. A major feature was the reverence towards certain trees and plants, with oxen being considered sacred animals.
The land that is now Nortend was invaded by Romans in 32 AD, and subsequently conquered to become the province of Erbonia, with the capital the prosperous port city of Lendartus. This led to around four centuries of Roman rule. The wild lands of Hambria in the northern region of the island, was until around 87 AD, uncaptured by the Romans who were not able to pass through the rugged and desolate Morians, a large mountain range, whose name comes from the Latin word, mors, meaning death. Finally, in 88 AD, the Romans bypassed the mountains with the discovery of the Aparian Pass. After establishing only a few minor forts in Hambria, the military withdrew back to Nortend, with the Hs still remaining.
The Roman military withdrew from Nortend in the late fourth century to the European mainland with the imminent collapse of the Empire. By this time, Barardian and other Erebbo-Latinate languages had begun to develop within the country, though not fully ousting the native Hoebric tongues. Without the deterrent of the Roman army, the Norts, Saxons, Angles and Cardes sailed and landed on the shores of the island, invading Nortend. Originally, there were only sparse settlements however in the late 3rd century, an increasing number of Norts and Cardes arrived. There was a surge in Angles and Saxons in the mid-4th century. By the late 4th century, the Germanic invaders had settled in various areas, mainly with the northern regions by the Saxons, north-eastern and western by the Cardes and the southern and central by the Norts, with the establishment of Germanic social structures.
Around ten major kingdoms were formed in the country by this time, which were, roughly from north to south:
Scandivanian armies conquered much of Norsax and Barardia early on in the 6th century, with Nordic rule established in the area. Around the same time, the three Nortch kingdoms of Lanort, Suthnorts and Dunricia were united to form the Kingdom of Nortenland in 512 by the King of Lanorts, the richest and most powerful kingdom in the area, King Ærulthea, who later died only three years later in 515.
The King of Cardoby attempted to increase their lands by invading Allanglia and East Cardes, which called for help from Nortenland in 523 which lead to a period of warfare, known as the Wars of Belryham. The Nortchmen under King Edred won the war against Cardoby in 527 and took the Gardolian throne as Lord, forming the Kingdom of Nortland and Cardoby. The Kings of Allanglia and East Cardes were indebted towards Nortlend, which imposed heavy taxes on them. Drained of resources, Allanglia was conquered by the Norch in the 7th century anyway.
Bissex, the northern-most Saxon kingdom, at this time was beginning to start battles against the even more northernly H tribes in an eﬀort to conquer their lands however this failed. They themselves were conquered by the Nortch kingdoms in 706, which was now ruled by King Freowun I, the King of the Norts and Lord of Cardoby. The Christian missionary, St Laurence, arrived on the shores of Nortend in 744 by order of the Pope Zachary I, in a quest to convert the Kingdom. Though Christianity had first been introduced during the Roman Empire, the old pagan religions still held sway over a large part of the recent invading Germanic population. King Freowun I, desiring the assistance of greater military powers should he need it, agreed for St Laurence to start proselytysing the people, he himself being baptised in 745 which is generally considered the start of the Roman Christian Church in Great Nortend. St Laurence of Sulthey founded Sulthey Cathedral in 749, and was its first archbishop.
Under the rule of the Christian Edmund the Good, King of Nortend and Lord of Cardoby, the Nortch progressively conquered the kingdoms including those controlled in the North by the Scandinavians, as well as the smaller Kingdoms of Wiste and Frælind, till the entire country was united in one single Christianised Kingdom of Nortend and Cardoby. The last kingdom to submit towards King Edmund as suzerein, that of Weatendland, was conquered in the Battle of Walecester in 880. Edmund the Good died in the Battles of the Morians, in 894, ﬁghting the Codeni tribes of Hoes. Later, the H people of the Codeni, Wignod and Tunel merged to form the Kingdom of Hoebrideland in the 10th century.
A Unified Nortend
The eleventh century brought much warfare in the northern counties of Nortend, during the Peasant's Rebellion from 1034 to 1036, against increasingly high royal taxes. Queen Jane ordered the mass killings of many peasant villagers in the north as punishment for their rebellion however was defeated by her barons who refused to kill their tenants, for fear of great famine.
The Flag of the Kingdom
In the twelfth century, new trade laws and legislature opened up the economy and meant the country prospered financially with Lendert becoming a large port of the world for the trade of especially wool, but also corn and dyestuffs. The House of Barmast took the throne in 973 under King Gerulf the Peaceful.
The House of Dester won the throne with the coronation of King Ecgbald the Uniter, after King Edmund IV died in the 1267 in the Battle of Rodchester. The rather radical changes brought to the country during the Dester period included the establishment of the law of brevis auctoritas or 'little authority'. This eﬀectively gave the power to make laws to a lesser authority of an assembly of the King's men, the Curia Regis, which later evolved into the present Parliament, though the King still retained the final say in lawmaking. The Destern period was marked by the Battle of Travlesea in 1469, when two factions claimed the throne after the passing of King Charles II. Though Abern II managed to defeat David, the reign of the House of Dester ended when King Albert I died in 1522 without any heirs.
The title of king was thence passed to King Edmund V, of the House of Anthord, in 1523, in a series of greatly disputed Parliamentary debates over the law of succession, which had labelled many potential Destern heirs as illegitimate and therefore not eligible to the throne. Despite this, there was never any full-blown military conflict, and the transition was fairly peaceful. The House of Anthord remains to this day the ruling house.
The Renaissance was brought to Nortend through French and Italian courtiers. This introduced new philosophical, artistic and cultural changes to Nortan society. Nortend increased in size its army and navy, and begun exploration into the unknown West and South West. Research into history and the sciences increased with the founding of the King's Circle, King's Society and the Royal College.
In 1571, the future Charles III married the Queen of Hambria, Clenancy of Rhise, of the House of Burt. After Charles III's death in 1599, Clenancy became Queen Dowager of Nortend and Cardoby, and Queen regnant of Hambria. Clenancy died in 1623 and her son, the then Alexander I of Nortend and Cardoby, became King of the two Realms.
In 1614, King Alexander I broke communion with Rome and formed the Church of Nortend. He was appointed the Supreme Governour of the Church Mundane. It is said that the King and the then Archbishop of Sulthey heard during the same night from God, urging him to persuade the King to establish a new church. It is believed that God said to the King, 'A new church shall be cloven away and set upon this rock and ye shall I make governour and vicar of the lamb', arguably referring to the Isle of Sulthey.
After eighteen years of separate rule, the Kingdoms of Nortend and Cardoby, and that of Hambria were joined in the Acts of Cleaving of 1642, when the Curage (a corruption of Curia Regis) of Rhise joined the Houses of Lords in the Nortend Parliament, in return for financial support after numerous failed harvests and famine. Though the famine lifted, rebellion ensued after the excessive taxes of 20 per cent of all goods were levied by Lendert. This was known as the Hambrian Rebellion, culminating in the Battle of Borlockton in 1646, with the Nortan Army and peasants of Hambria fighting on the fields near Borlockton in Marcastershire; however, the Nortan Army subdued the peasants, and the rebellion ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rhise granting power to the old Hambrian Curage of Rhise, still operating from Lendert, for the setting of taxes and other matters.
Early Modern period
The Early Modern period saw the influence of the Kingdom expand, with the settling of the colonies of Porthill and New Quarry in the Americas. The tiny islands of St. Parth and Hastica in the Mediterranean were colonised by Great Nortend as well, remaining the only colonies still extant after the American Revolution resulted in Porthill and New Quarry declaring themselves independent as well.
A treaty between England and Great Nortend was signed in 1715, which allied the two nations as two nations, Protestant but Catholic, with the Glorious Revolution in Britain signalling the last Catholic monarch. The various Combination Acts ended the historical system of open strip-farming for much of Great Nortend by grouping strips together into conterminous fields under the control of a single tenant. The industrial revolution spread across Nortend thence slowly during the end of the 18th century and throughout the 19th, initially with the rapid building of canals and digging of coal mines with railways in the 19th century. Though trade grew increasingly domestic, coal became a dominant export, although wool and grains still remained important. Nortend's plentiful anthracite, however, was never exported and instead kept for domestic use. Steam power never fully supplanted wind and water power, which continues to power most factories manufacturing fabrics using power looms, however became widespread in the collieries and mines for draining water effectively, replacing the windmills used hitherto. Water power continued to power the village blacksmiths' trip hammers, though mass production of iron and steel stock developed strongly in centralised factories.
WW1 had comparatively little effect on Nortend, however many lives were still lost in the men sent to ﬁght on the western front. WW2 affected the country more strongly, with a great threat of invasion looming over the heads of many. Nortend's small but well trained ﬂying corps successfully helped defend Britain from the German Luftwaﬀe and also thus from German invasion of Nortend. [OOC: I can't be bothered to try and flesh this period out... suffice to say the wars happened but didn't greatly impact the country]/
Nortend remains somewhat lethargic in her technological development since the 20th century. Electricity is widely generated nowadays by specialised generator mills or as a side product of traditional water and wind mills. There are also generating or power mills, generating electric power through coal. Despite this, electricity is mostly used for lighting, as well as for powering wireless sets, telephone and telegraph, in the cities and towns. In villages, often the only place with electricity is the local post office and railway line which use typically lead batteries to power the telegraph and telephone. Villagers often still rely on oil lamps and even candles and rushlights in the remotest regions. For more information on electricity, see here. Great Nortend has an average domestic economy, but with only a 1·4% unemployment rate and a middling GDP. There as a less of an emphasis on economic prowess as there is a focus on sustaining the status quo.
The country does lag behind on the adoption of modern ideas, with the Carolinian system of weights and measures legally mandated for use in trade. The use of a non-decimal currency is testament to this, with twelve pennies to a shilling and twenty shillings to a pound, along with numerous other denominations, as well as completely diﬀerent 'wetch' as well. As there is no national electrical grid, e-mail and the internet never has been used, and so the telegram, telephone and postal networks remain heavily used.
The economy of Great Nortend is heavily agrarian, which provides the livelihood for around half of the population, and localised, with a domestic semi-regulated market economy favouring isolationist mercantilism. Agriculture is well-developed to early-modern levels, with the highly fertile soil, temperate climate and plentiful rainfall providing excellent cropping for numerous small mixed farms. Great Nortend grows a wide variety of produce, and is effectively entirely self-sufficient in terms of food.
The local economies in Great Nortend are mostly centred around the county and hundred, especially the market towns established under charter. Weekly or fortnightly markets held in these towns form the backbone of local agricultural economies along with the commercial sector of tradesmen and merchants. More locally, parochial rates raised from the populace are used to further the parish's infrastructure, services and development.
Greater mobility through cheap railway travel have been tempered by complicated feudal and tenure restrictions on the transfer and conveyancing of property leading to less of the rise of cities and large towns than in other countries. This is further controlled by the national policy of advocating for a replacement rate of births, with two children recommended per family, in an attempt to control overpopulation of the country.
Economic growth in the commercial and trade sectors is slow, owing to isolationist policies and low levels of imports. The Government's policy is to levy high tariffs on incoming goods whilst levying lower tariffs on exported goods, which are mainly raw materials in the form of wool, linen, cloth and some grain and meat, which is well-regarded by many. Imports are mainly of iron ore, steel, copper and sand, as well as petroleum fuels and pharmaceuticals. Another growing focus is on tourism, which is becoming increasingly popular owing to the scenic natural landscapes the Erbonian countryside offers, as well as historical cities, towns and villages. As a result, the Nortan economy has been most self contained, with injections of foreign currency from exports and tourists, and with a constant outflow of money to pay for those goods which Great Nortend is unable to produce by itself.
The nominal gross domestic product in the 2017-2018 tax year (same as the civil year) was around £1,600,000,000, though the PPP GDP is considered to be somewhat greater. The nominal GDP is broken down into £1,025 million in private household consumption, £158 million in private investment, £300 million in government spending, £231 million in exports and minus £108 million in imports. The GDP per capita for the 32 million subjects is around £50 or approximately 6,000 US dollars however does not reflect that general unemployment of married women in Great Nortend, and of non-monetary compensation for many domestic servants.
Unemployment of working-age able-bodied men of the lower and middle classes is low, at around 1·04 per cent. Average annual income of the lower and middle classes is in the region of £200 in the lower end and £400 in the higher end. Around 31 per cent of the population live in large towns and cities, with a majority of people residing in agrarian communities and around 40 per cent directly involved in the agricultural industry.
A set of railway tickets
Transport in Great Nortend includes both private and public transport. Of the former, the most common include walking, bicycling and travelling in a coach or carriage. Motoring privately in a motor vehicle is not common, except for the wealthy classes. Public transport is more common for travelling greater distances, and mainly involve either railway travel or omnibus travel. Trams are also prevalent in many cities and towns, and ferries and canalboats exist where practical.
Railways cover the country rather densely, with technology not advanced from the early 1960s. Steam locomotives are common, with some diesel-powered multiple-units and shunters. With an early 20th century signalling system and manually operated gates and fully staffed stations, Nortan's railways would probably by familiar to the Victorian railwayman. Electric locomotives have been introduced as well for passenger transport services, using the system of third-rail, controlled by signalbox.
Motor car adoption has been slow as well, with horses and carts a common sight on many roads, outnumbering motor vehicles 30 to 1. Motor car ownership is increasing, though mostly in the upper class, owing to the high taxes and expensive licences required to be permitted to drive. The national omnibus network is an exception. Running on petrol, the network is thinly spread throughout the country and mostly in areas not easily reached by rail, serving as a vital link from communities to the rail network and thence the wider nation. Electric trams run in many towns and cities, and canals are a popular form of recreation as well as remaining a vital element of local goods transport.
The Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria is religious, with the Church of Nortend being the state church. Christianity pervades society, with weekly church attendance rather common (70% of the population). Judaism does exist, as does Roman Catholicism, though a minority. However, Mohammedanism and Scientology are prohibited under the Prohibitions Act of 1977. Atheists are uncommon, with less than 2% of the population such.
Breakdown of Religious Aﬃliation
- Church of Nortend: 90·2%
Roman Catholic: 2·1%
Members of all religions are required to still pay tithes, as well as atheists, for the parish funds and rector. In addition to this, every man no matter his religious view is liable to pay for the upkeep of his local parish church, as well as the upkeep of the cathedrals of said parishes through taxation. Certain buildings also are liable to pay for the upkeep of the chancel of the church, as well as the housing for the rector.
The Church is a major part of the political and judicial sector, with ecclesiastical courts still holding much jurisdiction. People also must swear upon the bible in courts as there is no other religious text or option available. Thus, currently, people who are not Christian are not able to appear as a witness in court though affidavits may still be presented.
The Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria are split into Nortend, Hambria and the Lordship of Cardoby, which are collectively known as civil provinces. These are administrative regions and should not to be confused with the ecclesiastical Province of Limmes.
Each province is divided up into a varying number of counties, which are known as duchies in Cardoby and as marches on the border between Nortend and Hambria, owing to their status as counties palatine where a duke and marquess hold power. Other current counties palatine include Sulthey and County Yeartey wherein the Archbishop of Sulthey and the Bishop of St Cleaves hold certain powers.
Each county is represented to the Crown by a King's Lieutenant. The King's Lieutenant is the King's military, judicial and personal representative in a county. Often known as simply the Lieutenant or the Lord Lieutenant if he be a peer, he commands the county militia, serves as the head of the county constabulary, returns writs of election, appoints Wardens of the Peace, appoints Constables, and is responsible for the wellbeing of the King within the county. He is appointed by the Crown to serve at His Majesty's pleasure. His deputy is the Sheriff who is delegated responsibility for the constabulary, prisons, Crown land, courts, the collection of taxes on behalf of the King's Exchequer, executing and returning writs and issuing certain licences.
Some counties are broken up further into divisions, which may also be known as ridings, annerings or farthings. Whilst a division is nowadays mostly used in cadastral or other nominal cases, the special divisions shewn below indented are often considered to be effective counties in their own right, and thus each send two knights of the shire to the House of Knights and each have a Lieutenant and Sheriff.
- North Riding
- North Heymeadshire
- East Farthing
- Allells, County
- Bissex Cranshire
Counties and divisions are divided into hundreds, also known as wards or hathings. A hundred is a grouping of a number of parishes, usually around 10, and owned by the same person, and corresponds to a deanery in the ecclesiastical sense. Most hundreds in Great Nortend have passed into private ownership of earls and viscounts, however there remain a number owned outright by the Crown. Hundreds are subdivided into parishes or manors. Parishes are controlled by the parish vestry which has a large remit of adminstrative responsibility. Officers of a manor or parish include the Rector, the Steward, the Bailiff, Reeve and the Lord of the Manor. Manors are subdivided locally into tithings, also known as borows, boroughs and borgows, which is a collection of around ten households used for mutual punishment for riots and other manorial crimes.
The King of Great Nortend is Sovereign over the Kingdom, as it is a semi-constitutional monarchy, with the monarch having many responsibilities and powers. The common lawmaking body is Parliament, formally known as the Royal High Court of the Parliament, which operates in a fashion similar to the Westminster system which was introduced from England in the 16th century. The three houses of Parliament, the House of Lords and Houses of Commons which comprises of the separate House of Burgesses and House of Knights, meet in the Castle of Lerdenstone. All bills must be passed by all houses, presented to and then assented to by the King before they become law, at a ceremony held in the House of Lords' chamber which customarily occurs eight times a year.
The most important officers of state in Great Nortend are the seven Great Officers of State. These form the core of the Royal Court and are either hereditary, indicated with an asterisk, or appointments for life. They are, in order of importance:
Lord High Steuard*: The speaker of the House of Lords and the senior-most judge under the King, deputising for the King in the Court of His Majesty in Camera, as well as presiding in impeachment cases in the Court of the Noble Lords. Held by The Earl of Barminster.
Lord High Chancellour*: The deputy speaker of the House of Lords and head of the Court of Chancellery and the Court of the Noble Lords. Administratour of church lands and funds and Keeper of the Great Seal of the Realm, and responsible for administrating the courts. Held by the Bishops of Chepingstow, who appoints a Vicar-General to manage his ecclesiastical and religious duties.
Lord High Chamberlain*: The head of the Royal Household, and in charge of the Royal palaces and castles, as well as organising ceremonial occasions such as state visits and weddings, and also serves as the King's representative in the House of Lords. Also serves as the Chief Justice of the Court of the Ermine Office. Held by The Earl of Godsucham.
Lord High Treasurer: The controller and official head of the King's Treasury and Exchequer, and Prime Minister of the Government. Held by The Duke of Limmes.
Lord High Admiral: Political and professional head of the Navy Royal. Held by The Duke of Derham
Lord High Constable and the King's Marischal*: Originally the commander of the royal armies. Nowadays, the Chief Justice of the King's Marischal and Constable's Court, and Field Marshal of the Royal Army. Held by The Marquess of Lasmere
Lord Master of the Horse: Responsible for the running of the Royal Mews, hound kennels, stud farm, coaches, carriages and all other equine matters. His remit has expanded into the realm of trade and transport infrastructure in general, and is also ex officio the Lord Master of Trade. Held by The Baron de Stanfield. He appoints a deputy, the Gentleman of the Horse, to manage the day-to-day running of the Royal Mews.
All eight are cabinet level positions and holders are always Privy Counsellours and peers. Other senior political Government cabinet-level positions are listed below.
- Comptroller of the Exchequer: Deputy to the Lord High Treasurer, he is in charge of the Exchequer, that is, of collecting taxation, duties and levies, raising revenue for the Treasury. Nowadays, he also controls the fiscal policy of the Government. Held by the Rt. Hon. Peter Hofton.
King's Clerk: Minister in charge of home affairs, policing, national security, fire brigades, the constabularies and other domestic matters, who heads the Clerk's Department. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir Aaron Billings.
Attorney General: Chief law advisor to the Crown, and also has control over most prosecutions by the Crown, and heads the Attorney General's Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir Peter Finch.
Foreign Secretary: Minister in charge of foreign affairs and foreign diplomacy, who heads the Foreign Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir George Drachington.
Secretary at War: Minister in charge of the administration and organisation of the Royal Army, who heads the War Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Frederic Hondel.
Postmaster General: Minister in charge of the running of and the head of the General Post Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir Lachlan James.
Master of the Board of Education: Responsible for schools, universities, educational standards and colleges who heads the Board of Education. Held by the Rt. Hon. Dr Thomas Wolfuller.
Lord Master of the Board of Agriculture: Responsible for management of agricultural practice, enclosure and surveys parishes by productivity. Held by the Rt. Hon. The Lord Baker.
Master of the Board of Railways: Responsible for the railways, and Second Lord of Trade. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir William Gouldon.
Master of the Board of Health: Responsible for health services, hospitals, nursing and social care. Held by the Rt. Hon. James Kinson.
Surveyour General of Forests and Woods: Responsible for the administration of Crown land and the Royal Forests who heads the Surveyour General's Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Jonathan Hall.
There are a large body of royal prerogative powers held by His Majesty, many of which are inalienable and unable to be abolished by statute. These prerogatives fall into three main categories: constitutional, legal and executive.
Personal prerogatives include the right to appoint ministers of the Crown, to remove ministers of the Crown, to warn, advise and counsel ministers, to give royal assent, to dissolve Parliament, to prorogue and summon Parliament, to issue writs of election, to appoint persons to the Privy Council, of possession of certain beasts and birds, to suspend laws, to dispense with laws, of immunity, to appoint officers and commissioners, and to license, collate and institute clergymen.
Executive prerogatives form the largest body of prerogatives in Great Nortend, and include varied and sundry powers, such as the right to impress and conscript into the navy and army, to requisition ships, the principle that the Crown can do no wrong, the right to give mercy, to issue writs for a re-trial, to nullify any legal contract between subjects, to declare war, to conduct diplomacy, to ratify treaties, to prosecute, to priority payment of debts, to tax, to enter nolle prosequi and fiat justica, to issue prerogative writs and to property bona vacantia. He may also give orders and decrees through Orders-in-Council as King-in-Council.
The state of the Kingdom of Hambria as a separate Kingdom within the Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria, is a matter of constitutional interest. There are a number of differences, though minor, in the government and structure in Hambria. The key importance is Hambria's legislature of the Curage of Rhise, which has sovereignty over fiscal matters although still ultimately paying into His Majesty's Treasury. Thus, whilst most bills are assented to de utroque, 'concerning both', and thus law in both kingdoms, certain bills such as most bills of taxation and appropriation may only be assented to for the Kingdom of Nortend.
A shilling coin
The currency in Great Nortend the the Pound Marten, named after the fact that the heraldic symbol of King Edmund is a martlet, a heraldic form of the house martin and that marten silver of approximately 91·7% (11/12) silver is used in the silver coins. The pound is subdivided into 20 shillings, which are further divided into 12 pennies. Each penny is then divided into 4 farthings. One farthing is divided into two octaves. Minting of octaves ceased in 1942, as its value had dropped significantly to be nearly worthless.
The pound is pegged within a band which is based on the value of gold, silver and copper. A solden of marten silver is worth around 4d. Hence, a pennyweight of silver is in fact worth ⅓d. Thus, this means twopence is worth around one US dollar currently.
The city of Lendert-with-Cadell traditionally has its own denominations of the pound used exclusively inside the city and its surrounds. The wetch is a decimal based system. One wetch (₰), worth 16/8. It is divided into 5 lides (∫), worth 3/4, which is further divided into 20 huckles (ɦ), worth 2d. Ten wetch, £8·6·8, is known as a decemplex, from the Latin for tenfold.
Actual coins of the wetch nowadays are only usually used in traditions such as Christmas puddings and in other certain circumstances as the pound marten has become ubiquitous in Lendert. Prices are still often denominated in the wetch and its subdivisions. However, bank-notes printed by the Prince's Bank are still used to-day for wetches and decemps which conveniently approximately equal $100 and $1000 USD respectively.