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East Oceania Wiki



Motto: For King and Fatherland (Havsk: For Konge og Fedreland)

Population: 17.881 billion (Feb 2020)

Capital: Asbjørn
Largest City: Asbjørn

Official Language: Havsk

National Language: Havsk

Demonym: Oceanian, Oceanic (Havmann[menn], Havsk in Havsk)

- Sovereign: Inge Barkisson I of Oceania, East Oceania and the Høyland
(Inge Barkisson I av Havland, Øst Havland og Høylandet)
- Prince of Asbjørn: Hereweald Sigurd Barkisson of Asbjørn
- Lord Speaker: The Duke of Misthil∂ (Hertugen av Misthil∂)
- Lord Chancellor: Baronness Maelynd (Baronesse Maelynd)

Legislature: Parlamentet
- Upper House: Odelsting (House of the Lords)
- Lower House: Fellesting (House of the Commons)

Establishment: 927 CE

Land Area:
26,039 square miles
67,440 km²
Water %: 18.41

GDP (nominal): 4,871 trillion Kroner (Feb 2020) | 9,619 trillion NS dollars
GDP (nominal) per capita: 272,466 Kroner (Feb 2020) | 538,093 NS dollars
1 Krone = 1.9749 NS dollars (NSEconomy v0.7 02/20)

Human Development Index: High

Currency: Krone

Time Zone: UTC±00:00

Drives on the: Right

The Kingdom of East Oceania | Kongeriket Øst Havland

The Kingdom of East Oceania, commonly referred to as East Oceania, is a parliamentary monarchy island nation on the eastern Northern Sea. Oceanians speak Havsk as their native language, a North Germanic language related to Norrønt and Ænglisc. Oceanians are taught English from primary school and are bilingual. Only the older generations and Oceanians from rural areas are not fluent in English.

Oceanians have inhabited these isles since memorial times, and because of its strategic location, have been subject of numerous invasions throughout history. Despite Oceanians’ ancient ties to the isles, the Kingdom of East Oceania was not established as such until 927 after the War of Union, when House Ælfwine of East Oceania defeated House Bartell of Oceania, thus annexing the isle to the kingdom. Succession wars were once commonplace and bloody wars over fiefdoms were fought regularly until the 1000s. Parliament with its current faculties was established in 1498, by the end of the Clover War. The kingdom has been ruled by House Barki since 1137.

East Oceania is considered a developed country, and has one of the lowest tax burdens in the world. East Oceania has a very high budget for defense, at over 46.6 trillion Kroner (92 trillion Nation States Dollars), representing 58% of its national budget.


While East Oceania is the English version of the nation's name, its historical name is Havland; ocean land in traditional Havsk


Evidence has been found of settlers living in the lands now known as East Oceania since the year 3000 BCE. Despite there being three kingdoms in the past — Havland (Oceania), Øst Havland (East Oceania), and Høyland (the Mountainous Country) an old folk poem dated to the year 542 uses the word “Havfolk” (Peoples of the Ocean) to refer to the inhabitants of these lands. Much of the early Oceanic economy depended on fishing and trade with the continent. By the year 800, as economies developed, Asbjørn, now capital of the Kingdom, became one of the main ports, making East Oceanians a prosperous people.

War of Union

Rivalry between Oceania and East Oceania, while always present, intensified significantly after trade with the continent via Asbjørn became source of much of the wealth of the eastern kingdom. By the year 919, the people of Oceania were impoverished, mostly because of the lavish lifestyle Oceanian nobility had. By 920, Oceanian peasantry revolted, causing great social unrest. As the populace refused to pay taxes, Lord Bartell of Oceania, desperate to keep his power, sought to unify the kingdoms of Oceania and the Mountainous Country and establish the newly formed kingdom as a trade hub to the northwestern parts of the continent. His plans were thwarted as a great plague swept the land. By 923, the plague had killed about 30% of the population, including the king of the Mountainous Country, which unleashed a war of succession. As the king had no heir, the crown reverted to one of his cousins. Both Lord Ælfwine and Lord Bartell, among other noblemen, lay claims to the throne, and after a year of negotiations, in 924, war broke out. East Oceania’s vast resources allowed them to beat a poverty-stricken Oceania over the course of three years. East Oceania’s main strategy was to use its powerful navy to blockade the island, already impoverished, and force it to surrender. On November 17, 927, Lord Bartell signed an Act of Union, withdrawing his claim to the Mountainous Country and relinquishing his blood right to the throne of Oceania, thus merging all the Oceanic kingdoms under East Oceania. With free access to East Oceania’s ports, Oceania’s economy grew steadily.

Battles for the Fiefdom and the Bigtopian Invasions

Not long after her Union, the kingdom gradually adopted a system of fiefdoms. As the War of Union diminished the monarchy’s central power in order to avoid a new war that would be hard to win, Lord Ælfwine granted titles and a landholding in return for fealty and service. Vassals did not own the land, but were given a legal right to usufruct it and retain 85% of its wealth. Because vassals were entitled to levy taxes on commerce through their fief, battles were often fought amongst the strongest over control of routes and bridges.

By the year 1111, under Lord Ælfwine II, the kingdom was invaded several times by different Bigtopian tribes who sought control of the isles. While they could never successfully remove the Oceanian king in Asbjørn, the lands of the ancient kingdoms of Havland and Høyland were fully conquered in 1113 and 1114 respectively. Lord Ælfwine II declared void fiefdoms and all vassals’ armies were conscripted under the Royal Army. By 1134, Bigtopian invaders were expelled, however, many remained in the kingdom and their descendants still live in the land.

The Clover War: The Decline of Absolute Monarchy, Magna Carta, Subject’s Rights and Parliamentary Monarchy.

Despite there being a general feeling of happiness over the defeat of the Bigtopians, noblemen resented the fact that their landholdings were confiscated and with them, their incomes. Lord Ælfwine II had no heirs, and named Lord Barki his successor in 1137. After his death in 1149, Lord Barki the First, used all his power to subjugate the angered noblemen, by stripping several of their titles and public executions. Lord Barki II succeeded his father after his death in 1163, and sought to form closer ties with his court and noblemen, as fears of a revolution crept into Asbjørn. Lord Barki granted pardons and restored the noblemen’s descendants’ titles, when the titles were hereditary, and also granted new ones to prominent merchants. Lord Barki II summoned parliament for the first time in 1193.

His successor, Lord Barki III, in 1233, allowed nobility to choose the Lords who would represent them, and notoriously, he also allowed the higher non aristocratic classes to choose their own representatives. Parliament at the time had more of an advisory role, and the King could overrule any law or decree established by Members of Parliament if he so wished. Parliament would remain in this role until 1498.

During the reign of Lord Barki VI, in 1490, Parliament pushed for two Acts that would limit the king’s powers and strengthen parliament’s. Lord Barki VI declined and banned Parliament, as he and those noblemen aligned with the royalty deemed it dangerous. The noblemen who supported Parliament and commoners of social status wore clover leaves on their jackets to show their support. The Cloverists deemed meeting in Parliament to be a right, and did so regardless of Lord Barki’s prohibition. The Royalists considered it treason and imprisoned and executed several Cloverists. By 1491, an all-out war between Royalists and Cloverists broke out.

The Royalists were able to maintain control of Asbjørn for much of the war, which only prolonged the inevitable; the Cloverists had full support of the peasantry, and many had gone up in arms at the opportunity to have Parliamentary representation, as they had been promised. The Cloverist army outnumbered the Royalists by 4 - 1 for much of the war. Significant events were the First Battle of Asbjørn in 1491, the first major defeat of the Royalists. The Great Battle of Høyland in early 1491, in which the Royalists took advantage of the mountainous land to crush Cloverists with enormous boulders. The Battle of the North Sea in 1491, in which over 50 Royal Navy ships were sunk by cannon fire from the shores of Northern Høyland. The Second Battle of Asbjørn in 1492, also won by the Cloverists. And the Battle of Misthli∂ in 1498, the definitive battle won by the Cloverists. Upon Royalist surrender, Lord Barki VI was forced to sign an Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject, which gave Parliament increased power over the monarch, and the Carta Magna, which limited the powers of the king.

Intervensionism & Expansionism

East Oceania occassionally utilizes its military might to secure its and its allies interests abroad when foreign powers threaten them. Despite only using its military for defensive purposes, East Oceania has historically gained territory from such incursions, but no such territories remain under Oceanic control in present times.

Death of Lord Barki XIII

On May 9th, 2018, Lord Barki XIII passed away over health complications. He was succeeded by his son Inge. Traditionally, since the Ælfwine dynasty began in the late 800s, heirs with succession rights gave up their given name and became known as the Lord of the House when crowned, which explains the sheer number of Lord Barki there have been in history, provided that House Barki has retained the throne since 1137. With the death of Lord Barki XIII, the King may now keep their given name, using the house's patronymic.


East Oceania's biome could be described as a temperate broadleaf forest, with a lush countryside and plenty of woods and vineyards, which has contributed to much of its agricultural economic development. It is mostly flat in terms of elevation, and several areas are below sea level.

East Oceania has a quite mild oceanic climate, despite its northern location. July and December are the hottest and coldest months of the year, with average temperatures of 72 F (22 C) and 42 F (6 C) respectively.


The Oceanic people are a hard working people who hold their liberties, both economic and civil, very dearly, and tend to view with distrust all types of government. Because of their laissez-faire attitudes, Oceanians have virtually no regard for public funding and consider governmental intervention in commerce and industry an example of overreaching power. Oceanians are a very cultured, intelligent people, with a taste for the arts and debate. Other populations regard Oceanians as humorless and cold.

Havsk is a North Germanic language, closely related to Old Norse and Ænglisc. The first evidence of its usage was found by archeologists in the Høyland Inscriptions, dated to 430 CE.

Havsk can be divided into three main forms: Old Havsk, Middle Havsk and Modern Havsk.

Old Havsk

Old Havsk is believed to have developed from Proto-Havsk is the 8th century and continued to be spoken until the 14th century. The dates are not absolute, as evidence of written Old Havsk is found well into the 15th century.

Old Havsk was written in runes, and the language's transition into the latin alphabet occurred gradually from the 900s to the 1400s.

Old Havsk was a moderately inflected language, which possessed high levels of nominal and verbal inflection. Morphologically, nouns, adjectives and pronouns were declined in four grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, genetive and dative, in singular and plural numbers. Most Old Havsk texts are now lost, with the notable exception of the Høyland Inscriptions and the old poem hafiðlandafólks sǫgu, which details life in ancient Havland in prose and is source of much of our present knowledge on Old Havsk.

Middle Havsk

The written language's transition into the latin alphabet documents a high number of phonological and grammatical changes that gave way to Middle Havsk. While linguists set different dates when Old Havsk developed into Middle Havsk, there is no evidence of Old Havsk being written after the 1550s, and no evidence of Middle Havsk being written before the 950s.

Middle Havsk lost most of its former inflection and grammatical cases. Phonologically, a vowel reduction took place, merging most unstressed final vowels into "e." The phonemic inventory also underwent changes, with dental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ merging with /t/ and /d/ or disappearing altogether.

Magna Carta, one of the acts signed at the end of the Clover War in 1498, contains some remaining Old Havsk grammar. It it, however, written in a mix of runes and latin characters, showing that at least some runes were still in use by those times.

Modern Havsk

Modern Havsk is believed to have developed in the late 1500s, early 1600s.

While written Modern Havsk has retained much of its predecessor's spelling and vocabulary, some grammatical and several phonological changes have taken place. Modern Havsk speakers can easily understand most written Middle Havsk, but would have difficulty understaning spoken Middle Havsk, due to these phonological changes. Most significant of these are the change of syllable-final plosives from voiceless to voiced, and the raising of vowels.

Modern Havsk's inventory of phones, in the standard Asbjørn dialect, is as follows:

Consonant phones

Vocal phones

Language Extract

“Það er vilji okkar ok við staðfestum, að kirkjan er frjáls ok að fólkið í ríki okkar hefur öll áðurnefnd frelsi, réttindi ok ívilnanir vel ok friðsamlega, frjálslega ok hljóðlega, að öllu leyti ok öllu fyrir sig ok erfingja sína, af okkur ok erfingja okkar, á alla vegu ok á öllum stöðum að eilífu, eins ok áður segir.”
Old Havsk

“Det er vores vilje, og vi fastslaar, ad Kirken er fri, og ad folk í vores rige har alle de overnävnte friheder, rettigheder og indrömmelser godt og fredeligt, fritt og roligt, helt og fullt för sig og deres arvinger, af os og vores arvinger, paa alle maader og paa alle steder för evigt, som nävnt övenfor.”
Middle Havsk

"Det er vår vilje, og vi fastslår, at Kirken er fri, og at folk i vårt rike har alle de nevnte friheter, rettigheter og innrømmelser godt og fredelig, fritt og rolig, helt og fullt for seg og deres arvinger, av oss og våre arvinger, på alle måter og på alle steder for alltid, som nevnt ovenfor."
Modern Havsk

— Extract from Magna Carta in its original Middle Havsk, preceded by Old Havsk and followed by Modern Havsk.


The Oceanic people are one of the most godless peoples in the region, considering religion and spirituality a private matter. Traditionally, Oceanians have mostly identified with a pagan religion that worshipped anthropomorphized gods and godesses, and believed in the existence of mythological creatures, such as giants, dwarves, elves, and other spirits.

Transmitted through oral tradition rather than texts, the religious practice focused heavily on ritual practice and shamanistic sorcery.

Little is now known of how religious life influenced daily life of ancient Oceanians, but archeological evidence suggests each community worshipped a main god and that practice was somewhat uniform throughout the land, with burial grounds and other places of cult having been found in most ancient populated centers.


Economic Indicators (NSEconomy v0,7)

Rate: Frightening
Currency: Krone
Exchange Rate: 1 Krone = $1.9749 NS Dollars (Feb 2020)
Imports: 91.265 trillion (Feb 2020)
Exports: 95.279 trillion (Feb 2020)
Unemployment: 2.58%
Tax rate: 0%


An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject

Whereas the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled, lawfully, fully and freely representing all the estates of the people of this realm, a certain declaration in writing made by the said Lords and Commons in the words following, viz.:

- Whereas persons of diverse evil, counsellors, judges and ministers endeavor to subvert and extirpate the laws and liberties of this kingdom;

- By assuming and exercising a power of dispensing with and suspending of laws and the execution of laws without consent of Parliament;

- By committing and prosecuting diverse worthy prelates for humbly petitioning to be excused from concurring to the said assumed power;

- By levying money for and to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative for other time and in other manner than the same was granted by Parliament;

- By raising and keeping a standing army within this kingdom in time of peace without consent of Parliament, and quartering soldiers contrary to law;

- By causing several good subjects to be disarmed;

- By violating the freedom of election of members to serve in Parliament;

- By prosecutions in the Court of King's Bench for matters and causes cognizable only in Parliament, and by divers other arbitrary and illegal courses;

- And whereas of late years partial corrupt and unqualified persons have been returned and served on juries in trials, and particularly diverse jurors in trials for high treason which were not freeholders;

- And excessive bail hath been required of persons committed in criminal cases to elude the benefit of the laws made for the liberty of the subjects;

- And excessive fines have been imposed;

- And illegal and cruel punishments inflicted;

- And several grants and promises made of fines and forfeitures before any conviction or judgment against the persons upon whom the same were to be levied;

- All which are utterly and directly contrary to the known laws and statutes and freedom of this realm;

And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being now assembled in a full and free representative of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done) for the vindicating and asserting their ancient rights and liberties declare:

- That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

- That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

- That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;

- That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

- That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

- That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

- That the subjects may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law;

- That election of members of Parliament ought to be free;

- That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;

- That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;

- That jurors ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders;

- That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void;

- And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening and preserving of the laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently.

And they do claim, demand and insist upon all and singular the premises as their undoubted rights and liberties, and that no declarations, judgments, doings or proceedings to the prejudice of the people in any of the said premises ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter into consequence or example; to which demand of their rights they are particularly encouraged by the declaration as being the only means for obtaining a full redress and remedy therein.

Now in pursuance of the premises the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament assembled, for the ratifying, confirming and establishing the said declaration and the articles, clauses, matters and things therein contained by the force of law made in due form by authority of Parliament, do pray that it may be declared and enacted that all and singular the rights and liberties asserted and claimed in the said declaration are the true, ancient and indubitable rights and liberties of the people of this kingdom, and so shall be esteemed, allowed, adjudged, deemed and taken to be; and that all and every the particulars aforesaid shall be firmly and strictly holden and observed as they are expressed in the said declaration, and all officers and ministers whatsoever shall serve their Majesties and their successors according to the same in all time to come.

Magna Carta
Lord Barki, by the grace of God, king of East Oceania, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciars, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his bailiffs and liege subjects, greeting. Know that, having regard to God and for the salvation of our soul, and those of all our ancestors and heirs, we thus declare:

1. In the first place we have granted to God, and by this our present charter confirmed for us and our heirs for ever that the church shall be free, and shall have her rights entire, and her liberties inviolate; and we will that it be thus observed; which is apparent from this that the freedom of elections, which is reckoned most important and very essential to the church, we, of our pure and unconstrained will, did grant, and did by our charter confirm and did obtain the ratification of the same from our lord, before the quarrel arose between us and our barons: and this we will observe, and our will is that it be observed in good faith by our heirs for ever. We have also granted to all freemen of our kingdom, for us and our heirs for ever, all the underwritten liberties, to be had and held by them and their heirs, of us and our heirs for ever.

2. If any of our earls or barons, or others holding of us in chief by military service shall have died, and at the time of his death his heir shall be of full age and owe "relief" he shall have his inheritance on payment of the ancient relief, namely the heir or heirs of an earl, 100 kroner for a whole earl's barony; the heir or heirs of a baron, 100 kroner for a whole barony; the heir or heirs of a knight, I00s. at most for a whole knight's fee; and whoever owes less let him give less, according to the ancient custom of fiefs.

3. If, however, the heir of any of the aforesaid has been under age and in wardship, let him have his inheritance without relief and without fine when he comes of age.

4. The guardian of the land of an heir who is thus under age, shall take from the land of the heir nothing but reasonable produce, reasonable customs, and reasonable services, and that without destruction or waste of men or goods; and if we have committed the wardship of the lands of any such minor to the sheriff, or to any other who is responsible to us for its issues, and he has made destruction or waste of what he holds in wardship, we will take of him amends, and the land shall be committed to two lawful and discreet men of that fee, who shall be responsible for the issues to us or to him to whom we shall assign them; and if we have given or sold the wardship of any such land to any one and he has therein made destruction or waste, he shall lose that wardship, and it shall be transferred to two lawful and discreet men of that fief, who shall be responsible to us in like manner as aforesaid.

5. The guardian, moreover, so long as he has the wardship of the land, shall keep up the houses, parks, fishponds, stanks, mills, and other things pertaining to the land, out of the issues of the same land; and he shall restore to the heir, when he has come to full age, all his land, stocked with ploughs and "waynage," according as the season of husbandry shall require, and the issues of the land can reasonably bear.

6. Heirs shall be married without disparagement, yet so that before the marriage takes place the nearest in blood to that heir shall have notice.

7. A widow, after the death of her husband, shall forthwith and without difficulty have her marriage portion and inheritance; nor shall she give anything for her dower, or for her marriage portion, or for the inheritance which her husband and she held on the day of the death of that husband; and she may remain in the house of her husband for forty days after his death, within which time her dower shall be assigned to her.

8. No widow shall be compelled to marry, so long as she prefers to live without a husband; provided always that she gives security not to marry without our consent, if she holds of us, or without the consent of the lord of whom she holds, if she holds of another.

9. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall seize any land or rent for any debt, so long as the chattels of the debtor are sufficient to repay the debt; nor shall the sureties of the debtor be distrained so long as the principal debtor is able to satisfy the debt; and if the principal debtor shall fail to pay the debt, having nothing wherewith to pay it, then the sureties shall answer for the debt; and let them have the lands and rents of the debtor, if they desire them, until they are indemnified for the debt which they have paid for him, unless the principal debtor can show proof that he is discharged thereof as against the said sureties

10. No scutage nor aid shall be imposed on our kingdom, unless by common counsel of our kingdom, except for ransoming our person, for making our eldest son a knight, and for once marrying our eldest daughter; and for these there shall not be levied more than a reasonable aid.

11. And the city of Asbjørn shall have all its ancient liberties and free customs, as well by land as by water; furthermore, we decree and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall have all their liberties and free customs.

12. And for obtaining the common counsel of the kingdom anent the assessing of an aid (except in the three cases aforesaid) or of a scutage, we will cause to be summoned the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons, severally by our letters; and we will moreover cause to be summoned generally, through our sheriffs and bailiffs, all others who hold of us in chief, for a fixed date, namely, after the expiry of at least forty days, and at a fixed place; and in all letters of such summons we will specify the reason of the summons. And when the summons has thus been made, the business shall proceed on the day appointed, according to the counsel of such as are present, although not all who were summoned have come.

13. We will not for the future grant to any one license to take an aid from his own free tenants, except to ransom his body, to make his eldest son a knight, and once to marry his eldest daughter; and on each of these occasions there shall be levied only a reasonable aid.

14. No one shall be distrained for performance of greater service for a knight's fee, or for any other free tenement, than is due therefrom.

15. Common pleas shall not follow our court, but shall be held in some fixed place.

16. Inquests of novel disseisin, of mort d'ancestor, and of darrein presentment, shall not be held elsewhere than in their own county courts and that in manner following,—We, or, if we should be out of the realm, our chief justiciar, will send two justiciars through every county four times a year, who shall, along with four knights of the county chosen by the county, hold the said assize in the county court, on the day and in the place of meeting of that court.

17. And if any of the said assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, let there remain of the knights and freeholders, who were present at the county court on that day, as many as may be required for the efficient making of judgments, according as the business be more or less.

18. A freeman shall not be amerced for a slight offense, except in accordance with the degree of the offense; and for a grave offense he shall be amerced in accordance with the gravity of the offense, yet saving always his "contenement"; and a merchant in the same way, saving his "merchandise"; and a villein shall be amerced in the same way, saving his "wainage"—if they have fallen into our mercy: and none of the aforesaid amercements shall be imposed except by the oath of honest men of the neighborhood.

19. Earls and barons shall not be amerced except through their peers, and only in accordance with the degree of the offense.

20. A clerk shall not be amerced in respect of his lay holding except after the manner of the others aforesaid; further, he shall not be amerced in accordance with the extent of his ecclesiastical benefice.

21. No village or individual shall be compelled to make bridges at river-banks, except those who from of old were legally bound to do so.

22. No sheriff, constable, coroners, or others of our bailiffs, shall hold pleas of our Crown.

23. All counties, hundreds, wapentakes, and trithings (except our demesne manors) shall remain at the old rents, and without any additional payment.

24. If any one holding of us a lay fief shall die, and our sheriff or bailiff shall exhibit our letters patent of summons for a debt which the deceased owed to us, it shall be lawful for our sheriff or bailiff to attach and catalogue chattels of the deceased, found upon the lay fief, to the value of that debt, at the sight of law-worthy men, provided always that nothing whatever be thence removed until the debt which is evident shall be fully paid to us; and the residue shall be left to the executors to fulfil the will of the deceased; and if there be nothing due from him to us, all the chattels shall go to the deceased, saving to his wife and children their reasonable shares.

25. If any freeman shall die intestate, his chattels shall be distributed by the hands of his nearest kinsfolk and friends, under supervision of the church, saving to every one the debts which the deceased owed to him.

26. No constable or other bailiff of ours shall take corn or other provisions from any one without immediately tendering money therefor, unless he can have postponement thereof by permission of the seller.

27. No constable shall compel any knight to give money in lieu of castle-guard, when he is willing to perform it in his own person, or (if he cannot do it from any reasonable cause) then by another responsible man. Further, if we have led or sent him upon military service, he shall be relieved from guard in proportion to the time during which he has been on service because of us.

28. No sheriff or bailiff of ours, or other person, shall take the horses or carts of any freeman for transport duty, against the will of the said freeman.

29. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall take, for our castles or for any other work of ours, wood which is not ours, against the will of the owner of that wood.

30. We will not retain beyond one year and one day, the lands of those who have been convicted of felony, and the lands shall thereafter be handed over to the lords of the fiefs.

31. The writ which is called præcipe shall not for the future be issued to any one, regarding any tenement whereby a freeman may lose his court.

32. Let there be one measure of wine throughout our whole realm; and one measure of ale; and one measure of com, to wit, "the quarter"; and one width of cloth (whether dyed, or russet, or "halberget"), to wit, two ells within the selvages; of weights also let it be as of measures.

33. Nothing in future shall be given or taken for a writ of inquisition of life or limbs, but freely it shall be granted, and never denied.

34. If any one holds of us by fee-farm, by socage, or by burgage, and holds also land of another lord by knight's service, we will not (by reason of that fee-farm, socage, or burgage) have the wardship of the heir, or of such land of his as is of the fief of that other; nor shall we have wardship of that fee-farm, socage, or burgage, unless such fee-farm owes knight's service. We will not by reason of any small serjeanty which any one may hold of us by the service of rendering to us knives, arrows, or the like, have wardship of his heir or of the land which he holds of another lord by knight's service.

35. No bailiff for the future shall, upon his own unsupported complaint, put any one to his "law," without credible witnesses brought for this purpose.

36. No freeman shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or exiled or in any way destroyed, nor will we go upon him nor send upon him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.

37. To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay, right or justice.

38. All merchants shall have safe and secure exit from East Oceania, and entry to East Oceania, with the right to tarry there and to move about as well by land as by water, for buying and selling by the ancient and right customs, quit from all evil tolls, except (in time of war) such merchants as are of the land at war with us. And if such are found in our land at the beginning of the war, they shall be detained, without injury to their bodies or goods, until information be received by us, or by our chief justiciar, how the merchants of our land found in the land at war with us are treated; and if our men are safe there, the others shall be safe in our land.

39. It shall be lawful in future for any one (excepting always those imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the kingdom, and natives of any country at war with us, and merchants, who shall be treated as is above provided) to leave our kingdom and to return, safe and secure by land and water, except for a short period in time of war, on grounds of public policy—reserving always the allegiance due to us.

40. If any one holding of some escheat shall die, his heir shall give no other relief, and perform no other service to us than he would have done to the baron, if that barony had been in the baron's hand; and we shall hold it in the same manner in which the baron held it.

41. Men who dwell without the forest need not henceforth come before our justiciars of the forest upon a general summons, except those who are impleaded, or who have become sureties for any person or persons attached for forest offenses.

42. We will appoint as justices, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs only such as know the law of the realm and mean to observe it well.

43. All evil customs connected with forests and warrens, foresters and warreners, sheriffs and their officers, river-banks and their wardens, shall immediately be inquired into in each county by twelve sworn knights of the same county chosen by the honest men of the same county, and shall, within forty days of the said inquest, be utterly abolished, so as never to be restored, provided always that we previously have intimation thereof, or our justiciar, if we should not be in East Oceania.

44. If any one has been dispossessed or removed by us, without the legal judgment of his peers, from his lands, castles, franchises, or from his right, we will immediately restore them to him; and if a dispute arise over this, then let it be decided by the five-and-twenty barons of whom mention is made below in the clause for securing the peace.
edition, we will immediately grant full justice to all who complain of such things.

45. No one shall be arrested or imprisoned upon the appeal of a woman, for the death of any other than her husband.

46. All fines made with us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all amercements imposed unjustly and against the law of the land, shall be entirely remitted, or else it shall be done concerning them according to the decision of the five-and-twenty barons of whom mention is made below in the clause for securing the peace, or according to the judgment of the majority of the same.

47. Moreover, all these aforesaid customs and liberties, the observance of which we have granted in our kingdom as far as pertains to us toward our men, shall be observed by all of our kingdom, as well clergy as laymen, as far as pertains to them toward their men.

48. Since, moreover, for God and the amendment of our kingdom and for the better allaying of the quarrel that has arisen between us and our barons, we have granted all these concessions, desirous that they should enjoy them in complete and firm endurance for ever, we give and grant to them the underwritten security, namely, that the barons choose five-and-twenty barons of the kingdom, whomsoever they will, who shall be bound with all their might, to observe and hold, and cause to be observèd, the peace and liberties we have granted and confirmed to them by this our present Charter, so that if we, or our justiciar, or our bailiffs or any one of our officers, shall in anything be at fault toward any one, or shall have broken any one of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offense be notified to four barons of the foresaid five-and-twenty, the said four barons shall repair to us (or our justiciar, if we are out of the realm) and, laying the transgression before us, petition to have that transgression redressed without delay. And if we shall not have corrected the transgression (or, in the event of our being out of the realm, if our justiciar shall not have corrected it) within forty days, reckoning from the time it has been intimated to us (or to our justiciar, if we should be out of the realm), the four barons aforesaid shall refer that matter to the rest of the five-and-twenty barons, and those five-and-twenty barons shall, together with the community of the whole land, distrain and distress us in all possible ways, namely, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, and in any other way they can, until redress has been obtained as they deem fit, saving harmless our own person, and the persons of our queen and children; and when redress has been obtained, they shall resume their old relations toward us. And let whoever in the country desires it, swear to obey the orders of the said five-and-twenty barons for the execution of all the aforesaid matters, and along with them, to molest us to the utmost of his power; and we publicly and freely grant leave to every one who wishes to swear, and we shall never forbid any one to swear. All those, moreover, in the land who of themselves and of their own accord are unwilling to swear to the twenty-five to help them in constraining and molesting us, we shall by our command compel the same to swear to the effect foresaid. And if any one of the five-and-twenty barons shall have died or departed from the land, or be incapacitated in any other manner which would prevent the foresaid provisions being carried out, those of the said twenty-five barons who are left shall choose another in his place according to their own judgment, and he shall be sworn in the same way as the others. Further, in all matters, the execution of which is intrusted to these twenty-five barons, if perchance these twenty-five are present and disagree about anything, or if some of them, after being summoned, are unwilling or unable to be present, that which the majority of those present ordain or command shall be held as fixed and established, exactly as if the whole twenty-five had concurred in this; and the said twenty-five shall swear that they will faithfully observe all that is aforesaid, and cause it to be observed with all their might. And we shall procure nothing from any one, directly or indirectly, whereby any part of these concessions and liberties might be revoked or diminished; and if any such thing has been procured, let it be void and null, and we shall never use it personally or by another.

49. Wherefore it is our will, and we firmly enjoin, that the Church be free, and that the men in our kingdom have and hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights, and concessions, well and peaceably, freely and quietly, fully and wholly, for themselves and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all respects and in all places for ever, as is aforesaid. An oath, moreover, has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the barons, that all these conditions aforesaid shall be kept in good faith and without evil intent.

The Kingdom of East Oceania