by Max Barry

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[DRAFT] The Second Constitution of Lorania

The Constitution of Lorania shall be struck out and replaced by the following Second Constitution of Lorania, which is sponsored by Seven seas.
The Second Constitution of Lorania

Preamble
We, the gathered nations of Lorania, in order to protect our liberty and guarantee a region governed by the people, for the people, of the people, and in fear of the people, henceforth enact this Constitution.

Title 1: Citizenship Status

  1. Citizenship shall belong to every nation that has resided in Lorania for a continuous period of seven days; save that any nation that has resided in this region for less than seven days may obtain citizenship by agreement of the Home Secretary and Prime Minister.

  2. No nation may hold citizenship if they have been convicted within this region of treason, nor if they are a vassal state of any nation that is already a citizen of Lorania.

  3. Treason shall be defined as assisting another group with the intent to remove the licit government of Lorania.

Title 2: The Rights of Nations

  1. Lorania may not interfere in the internal workings of any nation, including the right of every nation to freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, and freedom of the press; notwithstanding that the World Assembly and NationStates themselves may place reasonable restrictions on the aforementioned.

  2. No nation may be charged with any crime not defined in this Constitution or elsewhere in law.

  3. No nation may be tried of a crime unless they have a fair and public trial carried out by an impartial judge, nor shall they be made to testify against themselves in any trial, nor shall they be tried twice of the same crime unless new evidence comes to light in regards to that crime.

  4. Each nation that has voting rights in any given election shall have the right to vote for any candidate at that election freely and without compulsion.

  5. All nations shall be treated equally under law.

Title 3: The Executive Branch

  1. The executive power in Lorania shall be fulfilled by a Prime Minister who is directly elected on the third Wednesday of every January, April, July and October. Every citizen, apart from the Chief Justice, may stand for the post of Prime Minister and vote for any candidate in that election.

  2. The Prime Minister shall hold every possible authority in Lorania, and may appoint a citizen of their choosing as Deputy Prime Minister to assist in the running of the executive branch, with the agreement of the founders, or - in their permanent absence - the World Assembly Delegate.

  3. The Prime Minister shall appoint a Home Secretary responsible for internal affairs and security, and a Foreign Secretary responsible for external affairs and relations.

  4. The Prime Minister, their Deputy, the Home Secretary, and the Foreign Secretary shall comprise the Cabinet, along with any citizen that they desire to name as a Cabinet member for substantial and nontrivial reasons, and any Cabinet ministry that may be created by legislation.

  5. No Cabinet member may simultaneously serve in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister may veto legislation passed by the House of Commons within three days of its passage, but this veto may be overriden by a two-thirds majority of voting MPs.

  6. All Cabinet members shall fulfil their duties, as defined in this Constitution and other Loranian law, to the best of their ability.

  7. The Deputy Prime Minister shall become the Acting Prime Minister if the former Prime Minister was impeached, has resigned or is otherwise unable to carry out their role. They shall organise elections within two weeks after they take power, and the elected Prime Minister at those elections shall serve until they either leave office or the next scheduled election, whichever comes first.

Title 4: The Legislative Branch

  1. The legislative power in Lorania shall be fulfilled by the House of Commons.

  2. The House shall be comprised of Members of Parliament, or MPs, who shall be empowered to present their own bills to the House's attention, sponsor bills written by citizens who are not MPs (including Cabinet members), and debate and vote on bills presented to the House. There must be at least five MPs; and at least five MPs shall reside in the region of Lorania.

  3. MPs shall be elected on the fourth Wednesday of every January, April, July and October. Every citizen, apart from the Chief Justice and any cabinet minister, may stand to become an MP and vote for any candidate in that election.

  4. Voting for MPs under Title 4, Chapter 3 of this Constitution shall occur through a poll created using Google Forms. Citizens must telegram a verification code of their choice to an impartial electoral officer appointed by the Prime Minister for this sole purpose; in the form itself, they must include their citizen nation's name and their verification code, alongside no more than five votes. Any submitted form that does not include a unique citizen nation's name and a unique verification code, or that contains more than five votes, shall not be counted as a valid ballot.

  5. Proposals for bills must be written by a citizen inside a dispatch, which they must then telegram to the nation of Lorania House Of Commons Founder. An MP may propose a bill without conditions; a citizen who is not an MP must credit a sponsoring MP, who must also telegram Lorania House Of Commons Founder to prove that they are sponsoring that bill. The authoring citizen must not propose another bill until MPs have finished voting on the first bill.

  6. All bills (including Constitutional amendments) shall be debated for two days and voted upon for two days after that, or until each MP states whether they are for the bill, against the bill or abstaining from voting.

  7. Each bill with a simple majority of voting MPs in favour, including repeals and amendments to acts but not including Constitutional amendments, automatically passes and becomes an act; tied bills shall be treated as if they have failed. This Constitution may only be amended with the support of two-thirds of voting MPs.

Title 5: The Judicial Branch

  1. The judicial power in Lorania shall be fulfilled by the Chief Justice of the Regional Court, appointed by the Prime Minister and approved by a simple majority of voting MPs, who shall not hold any other office in Lorania. The Chief Justice shall be assisted in their duties by a jury.

  2. The Chief Justice shall try all cases; and may conduct a judicial review of any law, including any action performed by a nation in their capacity as a government official, to determine its constitutionality.

  3. No nation may be ejected or banned unless the Chief Justice rules that the nation has committed a crime that is worthy of being punished by ejection or banning; nor revoked of their citizenship unless they are convicted of (or impeached on the grounds of) treason.

Title 6: The World Assembly Delegacy

  1. Every World Assembly member in Lorania, apart from the Chief Justice (if they hold WA membership), shall directly elect their World Assembly Delegate on the first Wednesday of February, May, August and November.

  2. The World Assembly Delegate shall have the duty of approving proposals and voting upon resolutions considered by the World Assembly, independent of the Government.

  3. The World Assembly Delegate shall have no other powers by itself and is not a government official. In the event that the nation of Lorania Founder ceases to exist, the Delegate shall maintain their powers in the World Assembly and act as if they were the founder; save that they may not be impeached from their role as a substitute founder.

Title 7: Removal of Officials

  1. All Cabinet members may, with a two-thirds majority of voting MPs, be impeached and thus removed from their post on the basis of those high crimes defined in law, including abuse of power, and treason as defined in Title 1, Chapter 3 of this Constitution.

  2. The Prime Minister may dismiss any government official apart from the Chief Justice. However, any government official (including the World Assembly Delegate) may freely and without coercion resign from their post as such.

Title 8: The Loranian Union

  1. The Loranian Union is a political union comprised of Lorania and any other region with at least ten residents, henceforth an "eligible region."

  2. Any eligible region may join the Loranian Union by agreeing to an Act of Union with Lorania in a manner provided by law, and then having both that region's residents and citizens of Lorania agree to its becoming a member region of the Loranian Union by referendum.

  3. A member region may nullify its Act of Union with Lorania through a unilateral referendum, which may only take place once in each calendar year; or with the agreement of its government and that of Lorania, and then having both its residents and citizens of Lorania agreeing to its nullification by referendum.

  4. Each member region shall maintain sovereignty in internal affairs; save that they shall be forbidden from enacting any law that contradicts this Title of the Loranian Constitution, and that they shall accept the Regional Court of Lorania as their final court of appeal.

  5. Member regions shall cede all authority over matters of defence to Lorania; and may not sign treaties with other regions nor declare war on them without the permission of Lorania's central government, although they are not precluded from opening embassies or having normal diplomatic relations with other regions.

  6. Citizens of Lorania and each member region are Union citizens. They shall have complete freedom of movement within the Loranian Union, and may occupy any government position (subject only to regional restrictions).

  7. Member regions must send one MP to the House of Commons for every ten citizens it has (or, if it has less than ten citizens, one MP). The House of Commons may pass legislation that affects the whole Union, after consulting with each member region, with the participation of all MPs; and legislation that affects Lorania only, only with the participation of those MPs who are citizens and residents of Lorania.

  8. This Title of the Constitution does not preclude Lorania from signing treaties or mutual defence pacts that do not require the merger of any region with Lorania.

Title 9: Final Provisions

  1. The regional motto of Lorania shall be "Equality Above All Else."

  2. The regional flag of Lorania shall be comprised of three vertical bands of equal width; with a white band closest to the hoist, a yellow band closest to the fly, and a dark blue band between the other two bands.

  3. Candidates for any election prescribed in this Constitution may only announce their candidacy at that election at any point between one week before the election and the day before the election.

  4. This Constitution is effective immediately after its approval by a two-thirds majority of voting MPs. However, it must not be read as nullifying any legislation passed before its enactment, other than Lorania's inaugural constitution.

  5. The numbering in this dispatch may be amended mutatis mutandis if needs be.

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