by Max Barry

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Overview

Confederative Republic of Calliana



Flag


State Emblem


Motto: "By the sword we seek peace"


Anthem: "Be Glorious!"
Link



March: "Fighters for Peace"
Link



Territory in green

Population: 102,523,000


Capital: Varden
Largest City: Forsa


Official Language: English



Recognized Language(s): Calli, Cree, Dene, Ojibwa,
Inuktitut, Various other First Nations/Inuit languages

Demonym: Callianan - Calli
Norwester (colloquial)


Government:
Federal constitutional socialist republic

President: Thomas Wiker
Vice-President: Casper Gyldenlove


Legislature: Council of the People's Deputies


Establishment:
- Unification: 13th Century
- War of Independence: September 24, 1900
- Revolutionary War: August 28, 2010
- Current Constitution: June 17, 2015


Elevation
Highest Point: 2,616 m (8,583 ft)
Lowest Point: Sea level


GDP (nominal): $743 billion


Human Development Index: 0.885


Currency: Callianan Credit (₢)


Time Zone: (UTC−5 to −8)


Drives on the: right


Calling code: +1


Internet TLD: .va


Calliana, officially known as the Confederative Republic of Calliana but also referred to as the Second Republic of Calliana is a sovereign federal state in North America, bordered by the United States of America to the South, and the Commonwealth of Borealia to the west. It is bordered to the east and north by the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans respectively. Covering 5.25 million sq km, Calliana is the world's 7th largest country by total area, and is populated by 102,523,000 Callianans, making it the worlds 13th most populous country. Calliana is a federation comprised of 12 States.

Various indigenous peoples have inhabited Calliana for thousands of years prior to European colonization, which began around the 11th Century AD. These colonists began to arrive as a result of Norse expeditions to North America, hailing predominantly from Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. Until the 18th Century, Calliana was part of the Northwest Empire, which collapsed after a series of wars against the British Empire in 1763. In 1899 Calliana broke from British North America after the Great Revolution, which birthed the short-lived Callianan Republic before the restoration of the monarchy in 1918. After years of political turmoil, the current government lead by Thomas Wiker took power in 2015 after the Revolutionary War and created the Confederative Republic of Calliana.

Presently, Calli-Norse culture dominates Calliana, having been derived from Norse and Native interactions early in Calliana's history. The Calli people and Scandinavians comprise the largest ethnic groups in Calliana, although there remain significant Native populations, as well as accolades of German, Jewish, English, African-American and Irish immigrants. Roman Catholicism is the largest religious denomination in Calliana, although the number of religious Callianans has been steadily decreasing.

Calliana has the 20th largest nominal GDP in the world, ahead of Switzerland and trailing behind Turkey. It is considered to be regional power, and sometimes a middle power or emerging power in international affairs. It's economy is dominated by exports of rare earth elements, oil, automobiles, and heavy machinery. It ranks highly in metrics of national performance such as health care, education and income equality, although the government has been accused of the suppression of political opposition, arbitrary arrests and the abuse of certain civil liberties. It is a member of the United Nations, G20, Organization of American States and the Non-Aligned Movement.






















Etymology
While there is some debate as to the origin of the name Calliana, the most widely accepted theory is that the name is derived from the Old Norse word "KŠlland", meaning "KŠl's Land". KŠlland was originally used to refer to one of the most prominent Jarldoms of the Northwest Empire, founded by the Norse warrior and nobleman KŠl Northrisson. As KŠllander Jarls expanded their influence, KŠlland came to refer to most of modern Calliana. When French explorers first contected the Western Norse in the early 16th Century, they reportedly misheard locals and came to refer to the territory surrounding Erik's Bay as "Callienne". This would later be adopted by the English, who first coined the name Calliana.

History


Formation

First Nations and Inuit peoples, collectively referred two by the early Norse settlers as Skraeling, and later simply as Natives, have inhabited the lands that currently comprise Calliana centuries before being contacted by Europeans. Based on archaeological discoveries throughout the nation, most scholars estimate that humans first came to inhabit the territory at least 14,000 years ago. These peoples most likely migrated from the west, having crossed the Bering Land Bridge into present-day Borealia, before expanding east into modern day Calliana. Most sources estimate that the native population of Calliana prior to European contact was around 100,000 - 200,000 individuals. Native society was characterized by permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks between tribes.

The first European exploration of Calliana is accredited to the Icelandic explorer Leif Erikson, who first set foot in present-day Vinland around 1000 AD. Erikson established a small settlement near the present city of Helholm. After Erikson departed for Greenland, the settlement would be inhabited by his brother Thorvald, who arrived in 1004 AD. However, after provoking hostilities with native inhabitants of Vinland, Thorvald was killed and the settlement was overrun and ultimately abandoned. In 1007, a third brother, Thorstein Erikson, sailed for the new world to avenge the death of his brother. In a storm, he was blown off course, and was forced to winter north of the previous Vinland settlement in a territory charted during one of Leif Erikson's previous expeditions, known as Markland. Here, the first permanent European settlement in Calliana would be established.


Thorstein Erikson lands in Markland
Norse settlements continued to expand throughout the 11th and 12th Centuries. These were predominantly fishing villages in Northern Vinland and Markland, but the Norse began to move further and further south as fertile land was discovered. This would drive them and the natives, known to the Norse as Skraelinger, towards inevitable conflict. Raids and skirmishes were commonplace between the Native Tribes and Norsemen. One of the first formal alliances between the Norse and Natives was formed in 1098 when Norse warrior Authulf Amundisson cooperated with Innu Chief WÔpaskw in a campaign to take land in southern Vinland from the Mi'kmaq people. Going into the 12th Century, trade between Norsemen and Natives became more commonplace, and further alliances were formed. In 1201, a Norse-Cree Alliance waged a highly effective campaign against the Iroquois, pushing further inland and claiming territory around Erik's Bay and the Great Lakes, and enslaving many of the local Iroquois. In the aftermath of the conflict, the Northwest League (Old Norse: Nor■vestanbandi­) was established. Thormod Audgisilsson, a warrior born to a Norse father and Cree mother, was crowned the first King of the League in 1202.

Northwest Empire

The North American Norse became increasingly isolated from their motherland as expeditions slowed to a halt during the mid-13th Century. This would give birth to a distinct culture and people as the Norse and Natives intermingled more and more. These west Norsemen and their Cree allies expanded at a greater pace under Thormod Audgisilsson's son, Brand Thormodsson. Expeditions into the Arctic circle established friendly contact with the local Inuit, and further military campaigns south of the Great Lakes subjugated the Iroquois. In 1224 Brand successfully conquered the Eastern Algonquian tribes in present-day Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire and New York. Often known as Brand the Great, his rule lasted from 1220 to his death in 1251. He was able to expand Norse influence over much of Eastern North America as far west as modern-day Borealia, and as far south as Pennsylvania, effectively establishing the Northwest Empire (Old Norse: Nor■vestanrÝki).

Brand's descendants continued to rule over the Northwest Empire until 1327, at which point they were usurped by the Jarl of KŠlland, Gudmund Biorsson, otherwise known as Gudmund the Clever. Gudmund's rule saw a renaissance of west Norse culture, art and science, and ushered in what many consider to be a golden age of Calliana. His rule also saw the rise to dominance of the KŠlinger, later known as the Calli people, over the Northwest Empire. Gudmund and the House of KŠl began to open up trade with Natives in the west. KŠlinger settlements were established as far west as Alberta. The Northwest Empire reached its greatest extent in 1469, when it encompassed almost all of modern-day Calliana, Borealia, and much of the Northeastern United States. However, in 1497, the Venetian-British Explorer John Cabot landed in Vinland, making the first European contact with Norse in centuries. This would mark the beginning of a great decline of the Northwest Empire.

Anglo-Calli Wars


The Calli's last stand at Deildarey
Initial documents on the first contact between the British and Calli indicate friendly relations, with trade occurring between the two groups. Later in the 1500s, contact with the French introduced the Calli to Roman Catholicism, which would slowly begin to compete with Norse Paganism as the dominant religion. The English established several minor trading posts along the coast of Vinland, and the French followed suit, attempting to establish holdings in Erik's Bay, these were all short-lived and were typically abandoned after only a few years. Fur traders and missionaries commonly travelled to the New World from both England and France, often doing business with the Calli or recruiting them as mercenaries. The first permanent settlement came in 1583, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John's in Vinland. Relations between the English and Calli began to deteriorate rapidly after this point, and in 1590 an army lead by King Rodmar laid siege to St. John's. The settlement was destroyed, but the English Response was devastating.

Starting in 1600, the English launched a campaign against the Northwest, conquering the Calli holdings in the present-day United States. The British would also form an alliance with the Iroquois, who successfully pushed the Calli back north of the Great Lakes. The first Anglo-Calli War ended in 1610, leaving King Rodmar dead without an heir and the Northwest Empire divided. Holdings in the west slowly broke off, and Calli settlements were abandoned. Native tribes previously subjugated by the Calli saw an opportunity to revolt against their overlords, launching a series of campaigns (often with the aid of the British) to take back territory from the Calli. The Cree remained loyal to the Calli, although conflicts between Cree Shamans and the Calli Emperor, Odinkar the Mad, deteriorated after the Emperor kidnapped the daughter of a powerful Cree Priest to be his bride. The resulting tensions would devolve into a war between the Cree and several smaller tribes and the Norse dynasties of the Empire. Before his death, Odinkar launched a genocidal campaign against the Native alliance, before being assassinated by his brother, Jobjorn Karlisson. The war came to a conclusion as both sides grew exhausted with increasing British pressure, and the once great Empire descended into a chaotic mess of squabbling Jarldoms, and tribes. During this time, the Northwest grew increasingly closer to France. The two peoples enjoyed much more cordial relations than their common enemy, the English. There were several more minor attempts to claim the Northwest for England but all were repelled until the Seven Years war broke out and the Calli aligned themselves with the French. At this time, the shattered Empire was united behind a young and ambitious King, Baard Odinkarsson who lead a steadfast resistance against the British onslaught. He was also the first Calli King to adopt Catholicism in favour of paganism. He was killed during the Battle of Deildarey in 1763 in a last stand against the British and ultimately failed to prevent a conquest of the Northwest but is regarded as a folk hero in Calliana.

Struggles for Independence


Varden during the Great Revolution
The British conquest of the Northwest Empire gave birth the Province of Calliana in 1764, which was exploited extensively for its valuable fur pelts, timber, and its iron and gold deposits. However, anti-British sentiments persisted throughout the local population. Inspired by the American Revolution in 1776, a group of revolutionaries attempted to remove the British, although they were swiftly put down. Folkeism (named after Folke Haraldsson, a claimant to the throne of the Northwest Empire) became a dominant ideology across the Province throughout the 18th and early 19th century. Although Folke Haraldsson died in 1812, Folkeists continued to provide a resistance to British rule over Calliana, until the late 19th Century, at which point they became increasingly open to cooperation with the British against rising Marxist currents within Calliana.

In 1899, the Great Revolution began. Spearheaded by revolutionary republicans and syndicalists, the revolution ended on September 24th, 1900, with the execution of many local officials and the establishment of the Callianan Republic, leader by Prime Minister Rikard Lind. During the First World War, the Republic sided with the central powers, and in 1914 invaded British controlled Borealia to their west. Borealia and the Republic quickly reached a stalemate, until the Americans sided with the Allied powers and invaded Calliana, swiftly overwhelming them. Calliana surrendered in 1918 at the end of the war, and the Dominion of Calliana was formed as a colony of the British Empire. The British aristocrat, the 2nd Viscount Ravenswood was named the 1st Viceroy of Calliana. With the rise of fascism in Europe, similar movements began to appear in Calliana. The far-right Nordic Vanguard, gained a particularly radical following and gained the support of Folkeists across the country. Ethnic violence between the White Callis and Natives, and occasional Anglo-Callianans grew increasingly commonplace as the Nordic Vanguard preached their Norse supremacy, and pinned Callianans ailments on the Protestant British and Native Mythology. As a response to the growing instances of the violence against natives, the New Warriors moment was born. Rallied behind native activist and self-styled prophet Skenandoa, these natives united in adherence to the Longhouse Religion, a belief system drawing from both traditional native religions and Christianity. The New Warriors sought to organize counter attacks against Whites in northern Calliana, and in turn gained support among the impoverished populace of the sub-arctic. But when Nazi Germany and Britain found themselves at war, the Nordic Vanguard and New Warriors were both crushed. However, with nationalist sentiments till high in Calliana, and popular uprisings from both the political right and left dominating the country, Britain granted Calliana independence in 1946. The Kingdom of Calliana was officially born, and Halvard, a nationalist nobleman of House Jarlsberg, was declared King of Calliana.

Halvard III died of a heart attack in 1963, and was succeeded by his young son, Olav IV, who many viewed as corrupt, inefficient and unskilled as a leader. As Olav's rule progressed, he became increasingly unpopular and allowed Republican sentiments to flourish. In 1978, an armed insurgency began in Calliana's far north, mainly organized by Natives who were discontent with their treatment under the Monarchy. It was swiftly suppressed by the government but caused King Olav IV to implement stricter security measures, clamping down on his political opponents and stripping the nation's legislature of many of its powers.

Callianan Revolution

In the early 2000s Calliana suffered a serious economic downturn, with unemployment spiking to the highest levels in decades. Austerity measures undertaken by the King proved unpopular, and as the government began privatizing previously state-owned industries which were quickly but my American corporations, public distrust of the Monarchy reached a boiling point. In 2010, the Callianan Republican Congress was formed by a multi-party coalition, and declared itself to be the true "federal and democratic government of Calliana". The Congress began an armed campaign across Calliana in the spring of 2010, beginning the Calliana Revolutionary War. By 2012, the Republican Congress exercised de facto authority over the west of Calliana from the city of Forsa, while the Monarchists remained in control of the east.

Under the leadership of Thomas Wiker, the National Revolutionary "Black" Army of the Republican Congress launched the Eastern Campaign, aiming to put an end to the Monarchy. Numerous foreign volunteers are known to have come from the United States and Borealia, to fight for both sides, particularly in the early years. In 2013, after the left-wing People's Revolutionary Party took control of the Republican Congress, the Republican movement took on increasingly more socialist characteristics. Wiker's army advanced slowly into the east, before reaching the capital city Varden in 2014. The King would be captured attempting to flee the Royal Palace and was executed on January 1st, 2015. The remaining royalist forces surrendered shortly after the King's death. The Republican Congress declared Calliana to be a socialist federative republic, and established the groundwork for the current government. The Socialist-Democratic Party, a successor of the People's Revolutionary Party, established control over the new nation, and Thomas Wiker was declared to be the first President of the Confederative Republic of Calliana.

Republican Calliana

The United States and Borealia initially reacted favourably to the Callianan Revolution, viewing it as a catalyst for bringing a more liberal form of democracy to Calliana, however, this would change as radical socialists within the Republican Congress began to take power. The rise of Thomas Wiker and the People's Revolutionary Party after the end of the Revolutionary War, as well as his collectivist programme, would lead to a drastic deterioration in the relationship between Calliana and it's neighbours. Many former aristocrats fled Calliana in the immediate aftermath of the conflict to Borealia and the United States, as well as many landowners whose land had been collectivized by the Callianan Government. With many American corporations falling victim to Callianan collectivization and nationalization, actions were taken as early as 2016 to remove Thomas Wiker and the Socialist Revolutionaries from power.

In 2016 a group of Callianan Exiles and American Mercenaries attempt to enter Calliana to overthrow the Wiker government, although the events that ensued quickly became a catastrophic failure, with almost all of the pro-American combatants either captured or killed. The incident strengthened public support for the Callianan government, but would also push Wiker to pursue closer relationships with Russia and China. Additionally, Calliana forged alliances with nations across Latin America, including Mexico, Bolivia, Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador and Brazil. Callianan-Brazilian relations would begin to crumble however after the election of Jair Bolsonaro in 2018.

In 2019 Calliana faced its most dire challenge since the end of the Revolution after facing an invasion from Borealia troops. The conflict, known as the Border War, lasted until March and concluded with a decisive Callianan victory, with the Socialist Republic gaining territory from its western neighbour.

Demographics


Ethnicity


Traditional Calli clothing
According to the Callianan 2018 Census, Calli-Norse are the largest ethnic group in Calliana, making up over half of the total population. This is subject to controversy, however, as since the turn of the 20th Century the term Calli has evolved from to include a much broader base, with those of both pure Norse and mixed Norse-Native heritage, and northern European immigrants including English, Irish, German and modern Scandinavians identifying as Callis. Estimates range from 50% to 90% of the population as identifying culturally or biologically as Callis. Other ethnic groups of European origin present in Calliana are English, Irish, French, German, Dutch, Scottish, Italian and Ashkenazic Jewish. Natives make up a sizable portion of the Callianan population, with around 14% being of First Nations descent, and 4% being Inuit. A significant number of African-Americans immigrated to Calliana from the United States to escape slavery during the 18th and 19th century, and currently make up a minor percentage of the population, between 2 and 3% of the total population. Other minority groups include Indian, Arabic, and East Asian, although these populations are minor and typically sparse.

Religion

During the 1600s, Christianity replaced Calli Paganism as the dominant religion in Calliana, and has maintained this status since, with 63.1% of all Callianans identifying as Christian. Of these, Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination, comprising 49.6% of the total population. Protestantism accounts for the second most adherents, making up 14.5% of Calliana's population. The largest Protestant denomination is Lutheranism, followed by Baptists and Calvinists. Since the early 2000s, Calliana's native population has experienced an increased adherence to Longhouse Religion, claiming 3.7% of the total population. There are sparse pockets of Hinduism, Sikhism, and paganism. Calliana is a secular nation, and freedom of religion is constitutionally protected. Christianity has been in steady decline since the late 60s, and 31% of Calliana's population identifies as irreligious or atheist. Religion is typically considered to be a private matter rather than a public one. Churches are taxed like any other institution, and in most respects, Calliana is considered to be a post-Christian secular state.

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