by Max Barry

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Overview (Finally not completely WIP!)

United Republics of Calliana



Flag


Coat of Arms


Motto: "We Remember"


Anthem:
"That Partisan's Song"




The Continent of North Atlantia in 2020
United Republic of Calliana in [:]

Population:


102,523,000


Capital:

Brenna

Largest City:


Kristianasberg


National Language:


English


Demonym:


Callianese - Calli (Archaic)


Government:

Unitary dominant-party
presidential republic under
an Authortarian Dictatorship

President:

Lesharo Wiker

Vice-President:


Immanuel Floren


Legislature:

General Workers' and
Soldiers' Congress

- Upper House:

House of the Union

- Lower House:


House of Workers' and
Soldiers' Deputies


Establishment:

- Unification:

~1148

- Second Republic:

September 24, 1893

- Third Republic:

November 26, 2010

- Current Constitution:


July 30, 2018


Area:


4,591,885 sq km
(2,853,265 sq mi)


GDP (nominal):


$569.230 billion


HDI:


0.758 high


Currency:


Callianan Krona


Time Zone:


(UTC−5 to −8)


Drives on the:


right


Calling code:


+1


Internet TLD:


.ca



Calliana, officially known as the United Republics of Calliana but also referred to as the Third Republic of Calliana is a sovereign federal state in North Atlantia, bordered to the south by the United States of Colonia, to the west by the Illinois Confederation, the Nakoda Republic, and the Federation of Athabasca, and the north by the Imperial Federation, in the form of the territory of Borealia. It is bordered to the east and north by the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans respectively. Covering 4.59 million sq km, Calliana is the world's 7th largest country by total area and is populated by 102,523,000 Callianans, making it the worlds 13th most populous country. Calliana is a federation comprised of twelve republics and two semi-autonomous territories.

The territory that is known Calliana has been inhabited by a number of indigenous groups for thousands of years prior to European colonization, which began in the 11th Century, spearheaded by Norse Vikings from Sweden and Denmark. Prior to the establishment of the modern Callianese nation-state, the descendants of these Norsemen and their Indigenous counterparts ruled over much of North Atlantia as a part of the Confederacy of the Great Hearth, and later as the Haraldic Empire. However, by the mid-18th century much of the Empire had been defeated by European colonial Empires, and at various times was ruled by Sweden, France, and Britain as the Province of Calliana. A number of armed conflict between white Europeans, indigenous tribesmen, and mixed-race Norwesters, ultimately gave birth to the modern state of Calliana as the Kingdom of Calliana in the mid-20th Century.

Throughout the brief lifetime of the Kingdom of Calliana, its government was plagued by instability, ethnic conflict and violent insurrections. A number of uprisings and revolutions occurred under monarchal rule, the most infamous of which was the Callianese Civil War from 2010 until 2016, which resulted in the collapse of the monarchy. The conflict ultimately divided Calliana into the United Republics, led by the social democrat Marcus Levander, and the Northwest Empire led by Folke III, although the latter remains largely isolated in pockets in the far north, and its status as a sovereign state is highly disputed.

Calliana is a federal, dominant-party republic, led by President Lesharo Wiker and the left-wing Revolutionary Union. The Callianese government has been accused by political dissidents and human rights groups for widespread human rights abuses, censorship and mass surveillance, arbitrary arrests, as well as cracking down on anti-government protests and dissent. The Callianese government says that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present economic level.

In terms of international affairs, Calliana is considered to be a regional power and an emerging economy, and sometimes a middle power. It is classified as a middle-income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country. As of 2019 Calliana has the 21st largest nominal GDP in the world, ahead of Siam and trailing behind Persia. Its economy is dominated by exports of rare earth elements, forestry goods, automobiles, and heavy machinery. Because of its rich culture and history, Calliana ranks second in North Atlantia and eighth in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. It ranks highly in metrics of national performance such as health care, education and income equality. It is a member of the United Nations, Organization of Occidental States and the Non-Aligned Movement. In 2020 it was a guest at the G20.























Etymology
It is likely that the word "Calliana" was a French bastardization of the Norwester word "Kalliland", literally meaning "Kalli's Land" or "Kalli's Country", which early Norwesters and Urfolk used to reffer to the north-bank of the Calli River. The territory itself was named for Calli the Lawmaker (also known as Karl I the Lawmaker), a semi-legendary warrior and political leader of mixed Norse-L'nu descent and, according to folk history - one of the ancestral fathers of the Norwester people. Calli's extensive military conquests along the Calli River contributed to the land bearing his name, and many early Norwesters reffering to themselves as "The People of Kalli" or "Kallinger". The French explorer Jacques Cartier is widely credited with having propagated the name Calliana following his 1534 voyage to the Atlantias. After speaking with local Norwesters, Cartier came to know the territory as "Callienne", which was later translated into English as Calliana. While the official name of Calliana in original records was the "Northwest Territory", while Sweden knew the territory as "Vinland", basing their knowledge off of ancient Norse sagas. However, among most sailors, explorers and merchants the name Calliana proved more popular, ultimately eclipsing all other exonyms. Various indigenous groups continue to refer to Calliana as "Hanona", loosely translating to "Turtle Island", based upon their mythological origin stories.

History


Early Establishments


Vikings sail towards Vinland
The first inhabitants of what is now Calliana are generally hypothesized to have arrived from the south, in what is now Colonia, following the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. These early settlers are believed to be descended from prehistoric Siberians who found their way into North Atlantia by way of the Bering Land Bridge. The Karlson Mammoth site located in present-day is one of the oldest surviving pieces of evidence pointing to human activity in the region, dating back nearly 13,500 years ago. While the cultures and lifeways of indigenous societies varied greatly from region to region, most were characterized by permanent settlements, corn and bean agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks which stretched across North and Central Atlantia. By the time the first Norse settlers arrived in North Atlantia, the indigenous population is estimated to be anywhere between 50,000 and 1 million, though reliance on oral histories as opposed to written documents has made speculation difficult.

The first reference to what is now Calliana in European records occurred in the year 985 when the Icelandic merchant Bjarni Herjˇlfsson was blown off course while voyaging to Greenland, though he never landed and was only interested in reaching Greenland. However, inspired by Bjarni's accounts, the explorer Leif Erikson led a second expedition in 1000, charting three separate areas along the eastern seaboard: Helluland, which means "land of the flat stones"; Markland, "the land of forests"; and Vinland, "the land of wine", found somewhere south of Markland. In Vinland, Erikson established the first European settlement, though he abandoned the Vinland colony only two years later. However, he would be followed in 1004 by his brother, Thorvald, who would spend the next Winter at Leif's camp along with 30 settlers.

Thorvald's mission would be short-lived and bloody. During his first winter, he and his men murdered an indigenous fisherman, who's tribe would eventually retaliate by killing Thorvald along with many of his settlers. In 1006, a third mission would arrive in the new world, this time led by a third brother, Thorstein Erikson and his wife Gudrid, who had sworn to avenge Thorvald. Accompanied by around 25 ships of Norsemen, Thorstein was able to land in Vinland and recover his brother's body, although a storm forced him and his men to remain in Vinland over the winter, during which time and epidemic felled Thorstein and many of his followers. However, Gudrid was able to survive and maintained a small homestead near present-day Brenna, the first permanent Norse settlement in the new world. Over the following decades, additional voyages from Sweden increased the population of the Norse-Atlantian settlements rapidly, from only a few hundred in 1006 to somewhere between 9,000 and 14,000 by the early 12th century. Most of these settlers were early Swedes and Norwegians fleeing the spread of Christianity, but also included Gaels from present-day Scotland and Ireland; most of whom were brought over as slaves. Modern DNA evidence has suggested that around 70% of the male settler population was of Norse ancestry, while almost 60% of the female population was Celtic.

Middle Ages and the Emergence of Calliana


Calli the Lawmaker speaks to his people

As the population of the Norse-Atlantian settlements grew, the need for arable lands drove Viking longboats deeper inland, sparking conflict with indigenous "SkrŠling", which lasted from the start of the 11th century well into the 12th. The modern nation of Calliana only began to emerge as a recognizable territorial entity in 1148 after Calli's War, a conflict initiated by Karl I the Lawmaker (more commonly known as Kalli or Calli), the child of a Norse warrior and an indigenous woman. Calli, the first Great King of the Confederacy, successfully united the Norse city-states along the east coast with indigenous tribes throughout the river valley and great lakes region, establishing the Confederacy of the Great Hearth - the Great Hearth referring to the meeting place of the "Great Council" (Old Norse: Al■ing) of the Confederacy, near modern-day Kristianasberg. The Confederacy was ruled as an elective monarchy in accordance with Calli's "Great Law", an early legal code laid down by the Lawmaker, meritocratic in nature and based around consensus decision making. The rise of the Confederacy also coincided with the rise of the "Bandmen" (the mixed-race children of Norsemen and indigenous people, and the ancestors of modern Norwesters) as an independent cultural group; known as the "Guardians of the Hearth" in the "Great House of Peoples" that was the confederacy.

Calli died at the age of 59 in 1181 and was succeeded as King by his brother Bram I, who began what is now known as the "Great Expansion", during which time the Confederacy sought to spread Calli's Great Law to independent indigenous tribes. It would also mark the rapid decline of contact between the New World and Old Europa. Immigration became almost non-existent after a brief war between the Confederacy and Norway over Greenland. During the Great Expansion, the Confederacy began to turn its attention inland, waging military campaigns against native Shawnee, Miami, Leni and Conestoga to the south, the Akwanake and Inuit people to the North, while repelling invasions from the nomadic plains peoples to the west. The most successful ruler during this time is generally considered to be Queen Luta I the Great, whos rule from 1303 to 1323 saw the Confederacy expand its reach well into modern-day Nakoda and as far south as modern-day Virginia. In the north, Luta managed to subjugate the Inuit on the Ungava peninsula, though she was ultimately killed during a failed invasion into Helluland. Her death, ironically following one of the most successful periods in the Confederacy's history would lead to some of its most difficult.


The Baptism of Baard and his men
After Luta's untimely death the Confederacy found itself overextended and began to suffer from chaos and increasingly violent internal disputes. The final Great King, Bram III was murdered by the Al■ing in 1328, beginning the Time of Troubles (also known as the Olaug, or Lawless Times) - a series of bloody civil wars that would see the collapse of the Confederacy into squabbling city-states and tribes. After 41 years of conflict, Harald I the Restorer was able to emerge on top, crowning himself as the Emperor of the centralized Empire of the Great Hearth (also known as Haraldic Empire) - controlling the core territory of what had been the Confederacy around the Great Lakes and Calli River. Harald's reign saw the mass displacement of the indigenous tribes from the arable land near the great lakes, the suppression of indigenous culture, ethnic cleaning, and the rise of the Bandmen as the undisputed political elite. His current legacy is rather controversial because of this, though he is often credited with preserving the foundations of modern Calliana, improving the country's infrastructure, and establishing the Haraldic Dynasty.

In the mid 15th century Europeans began the second wave of exploration into the new world, spearheaded by the Swedish Empire, and followed by the English, French, and Spanish. As were the early interactions with between the SkrŠling and Norsemen, early contact with European powers often devolved into violence, particularly with the Swedish, who claimed the territory of "Vinland" for King Eric XIV in 1558. The Haraldic Emperor at the time, Harald X, was captured by the Swedish, and as a warning to the locals, was burned at the stake alongside his three-eldest sons. However, Harald's illegitimate son, Baard continued to lead the resistance against the Swedish. This earned "Baard the Bastard" folk hero status and, according to many, the honour of being the founding father of modern Calliana. He is credited with converting the country to Christianity as part of an agreement with the French, and for establishing the Empire of Calliana in 1559. Baard managed to repel the Swedish invasion during the First Calli-Swedish War. However, in 1583, he was betrayed by his cousin Bram Haraldsson, a powerful Warlord opposed to the Christianization of Calliana. With the house of Harald extinct, the Empire of Calliana was briefly ruled by Bram VI, before being crushed during the second Calli-Swedish War in 1580, beginning a period of colonial rule in Calliana.

Early modern Calliana


Wengo Tola, the father of Callianese
Independence
Swedish Calliana was plagued throughout its existence by civil conflict. Supported by the English, who had their own colonial interests in Calliana, a group of Bandmen rebels led by Wengo Tola and Iorund Hegg managed to lead an uprising against the Swedes, driving them out of Calliana and establishing the First Republic of Calliana on April 7, 1759. The so-called "Norwester Rebellion", named for the English term for the Bandmen, planted the seeds of what is now considered to be the modern Norwesters' cultural and ethnic identity. The same year, after a brief power struggle between Tola and Hegg, the republic collapsed into two warring factions; the "Bondi" led by Tola (a group of radicals sometimes seen as early anarchists and agrarian socialists) on one side, and the "Okamen", British Loyalists led by Hegg, on the other. During the Battle of Baro on March 13, 1763, Tola and thousands of his supporters were massacred by the English and the Republic was destroyed. Following the destruction of the First Republic, the English managed to establish a firm stronghold in Calliana. The territory itself was divided into British Calliana, the section of the country ruled directly by the English Crown, and princely states ruled by local rulers under English paramountcy.

Revolts were common during the span of British Colonial Rule, though save for the Great Atlantian Revolution of 1776, they were only minor. During the British Atlantia's (later the United States of Colonia) bid for independence in the late 18th century, Calliana itself was divided on whether or not to support the rebels; much of Calliana's indigenous population, known as the Urfolk since the Swedish occupation, and many Norwesters fought on the side of the rebels, though they were easily crushed by the Norwester Princely states and their British allies. Faced with the threat of a second, more successful revolution in Calliana, the British became increasingly harsh when it came to suppressing Norwester and Urfolk nationalist sentiments and culture; cracking down on Catholicism and indigenous languages, and displacing both Urfolk and Norwesters from the east and fertile south, driving them out of their ancestral homelands and deeper north to make room for English settlers. Anger at the British was intensified after Calliana found itself as the main front during the War of 1812, during which time both Norwesters and Urfolk were conscripted to fight against Colonia, and again during the Famine of 1860, during which almost one million Norwesters were killed, along with around 500,000 Urfolk. By the 1880s, anti-British sentiment had reached a boiling point, leading to the "Great Revolution" in 1882.

Modern Calliana


Callianese troops in Operation Ragnarok, 1943
After seven years of fighting, the united Callianese rebel force of Urfolk and Norwesters managed to gain independence from the British, briefly as the Kingdom of Calliana from 1889 to 1893 under Maximilian I of Jarlsberg (a Swedish mercenary and alleged descendant of Harald II the Restorer), and then as the Second Republic of Calliana, which was established in 1893 by the Callianese Republican Brotherhood, led by Anakol Larson. The Second Republic included much of the Haraldic Empire, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Manitoba, but losing a considerable degree of territory to the independent urfolk states of Athabasca, Nakoda and Miami to the west, and to Colonia to the south. With significant Norwester populations living outside of territorial Calliana, irredentist sentiments flourished, leading Calliana to side with the Central Powers during the First World War in 1907. With the war in Europa raging on, Calliana staged an invasion of Colonia, which quickly proved to be disastrous. The war of attrition to the south, the Republic's defeat at sea by the British, and the opening of a third front with the Nakoda to the west forced Calliana to capitulate by 1921. The Great Depression in the 1930s caused internal tensions to worsen in the Republic, leading to the rise of Kormak Hassel and the National Republican Association, heavily inspired by the Italian fascist movement. Under Hassel, there were violent pogroms carried out against Urfolk civilians and protestants, leaving somewhere between 500,000 and 1.75 million innocent people dead. Today, the massacre is known as the "Callianese Genocide" or euphemistically as "The Pacification".

Calliana supported the Axis during the Second World War, invading Nakoda in 1939 and Colonia in 1942. Though the Republic was far more militarily successful in its second time around, it slowly caved to the British Royal Navy at sea and was caught off guard by a Colonian counterattack in 1945. By 1947, British troops had landed in Calliana, and the Republican Army was in General retreat. The Republic surrendered unconditionally in 1950, its military destroyed and its economy in ruins. Hassel attempted to escape but was captured and beaten to death by a mob just outside the capital on October 3, 1950. In the following months, the Republic itself was dissolved and the Jarlsberg monarchy was reinstated, this time under Maximilian I's great-grandson, Kristian I, who had been born in exile in Brazil. Kristian was assassinated in 1960 and succeeded by his son Harald IX, who in turn was succeeded by his son Kristian II in 1980. Kristian II inherited a repressive regime from his father, this time dominated by Anglo-Protestants and directed against the Norwesters and Urfolk.

After a socialist revolution swept Athabasca in 1977, the Royal Callianese government invaded to support the deposed democratic government, though again this military outing proved to be a failure, draining economic resources with little to no returns. The Royal Army was ultimately withdrawn in the mid-1990s due to international and internal opposition to the conflict, though internal turmoil only worsened. To pay for the war, and help rebuild the Callianese economy of years of mismanagement and warfare, Kristian launched a series of liberal reforms across the country; removing tariff protections for local industries and privatizing hundreds of state-owned industries, including several state-owned mining and agricultural firms, as well as social security and healthcare services. At the same time, Kristian II ruled as a dictator, banning trade unions and arresting tens of thousands of dissidents, republicans, ethnic nationalists and separatists, and leftists. Up to 100,000 people were detained and tortured, at least 3,000 were executed, and at least 1,000 were forcibly disappeared. At the same time, while privatization managed to rapidly advance industrialization and rebuild Calliana's economy, poverty and corruption continued to plague the nation, sowing more dissent that Kristian II was ultimately able to control.

Civil War and Post-Revolutionary Calliana

By the mid-2000s, Marcus Levander and the National Republican Convention - a prominent opposition bloc - had begun to gain traction. Fearing an uprising, Kristian II announced that in 2010 he would hold free and open elections for the first time in the history of the new Kingdom. By the time of the election, Levander and the Convention seemed poised to claim victory, and supposing they didn't, they were supported by the militant Callianese Volunteers led by Hugo Dalman, Lesharo Wiker, and Enyeto Thomas, who the King feared would lead a revolt if the Convention didn't win. On November 26, 2010, the eve of the election, pro-monarchist gangs known as the Black Hand raided polling stations, scaring off voters and fabricating results that were far more favourable for Kristian II and his loyalist bloc. In the aftermath of the November 26 Fiasco, the Callianese Civil War erupted between Kristian's loyalists and Levander's revolutionaries. The revolutionaries, thanks to the efforts of Enyeto Thomas, a General in Levander's National Revolutionary Army, were able to win the support of a number of foreign powers, including China and Muscovia, as well as Nakoda and Athabasca. This also drew the British and Colonians into the conflict on the side of the Loyalists, though by 2016 the Kingdom had fallen, and Kristian II was executed by Republican forces. This led to the establishment of the Third Republic of Calliana, otherwise known as the United Republics.


Rebels in Kristianasberg, 2013
Levander was sworn in as Calliana's new President in 2016, though two years later he suffered a debilitating stroke, leaving him bedridden, and the Republic on the verge of collapse. At the same time, a bitter power struggle had emerged between three of Levander's most prominent supporters; Klemens Marley, the Vice-President and an outspoken liberal, popular among the upper-classes; Enyeto Thomas, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, who was popular among intellectuals; and Quartermaster-General Lesharo Wiker, who had the backing of the military and the lower classes. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Wiker was able to leverage his position as the head of the armed forces to declare himself President, though the methods he used were controversial. Many decried his rise to power as a coup, after he admitted to threatening Marley and Thomas with military action into stepping down, clearing his own path to the Presidency, which he assumed after Levander's death on June 21, 2018. Wiker did eventually manage to win the support of Thomas during a brief military conflict with civilian militias and rogue elements of the Armed Forces led by Marley, establishing his undisputed control over modern Calliana during the summer of 2018.

Presently, Calliana is ruled as a de jure federal constitutional multi-party republic, though a de facto dictatorship under Lesharo Wiker and the Revolutionary Union, which adheres to a populist, revolutionary syndicalist line, and claims the legacy of the Old Confederacy. Pockets of resistance remain, however, including the resurgent Callianese Empire located in the far north, led by a handful of Jarlsberg loyalists. The Northern Anarchist Federation has also declared itself to be in open rebellion against the republic, fighting in the Northeast, although presently it controls no territory and is estimated to have less than one-hundred active militants.

Demographics


Ethnicity

Calliana is an ethnically diverse nation, home to thirty-five distinct languages and cultures and organized into several major language families, including; Norse Creoles, Adawe, Akwanake, Canienka, Hohean, Innu, Inuktitut, and L'nu. English is the most commonly spoken language in the country, with about 64% of Callianese speaking it as their first language, and an additional 16% being fluent English speakers. Calliana has no official language, but English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language". Despite the predominance of the English language, the vast majority of Calliana's population are Ethnic Norwesters; the mixed-race descendants of Norse settlers and local indigenous Urfolk. As of 2020, 60.2% of Calliana ethnically identified as Norwesters, though in more recent years this number may have inflated artificially as the definition of the term broadened to include the mixed descendants of Englishmen, Swedes and Norwegians, Germans, and Dutch settlers, and even white Scandinavians. 17.6% of the population are Urfolk or indigenous, through this number is also somewhat debatable, confused by the number of tribals identities and the tendency for tribes with significant contact with Norsemen to adopt Norwester cultural identities for themselves. 8.4% of the total population is "Anglo-Callianese", which includes English and Scottish immigrants. 4.1% of the population is of German ancestry, often referred to as "Vinnic-Germans". 3.2% of the population is African-Callianese, 2.4% of Callianese citizens identify as French, 1.1% are Dutch and 1% are Irish while the remainder is composed of Germans, Spaniards and Latinos, Jews, and others.


St. Grimwald's Cathedral in Brenna

Religion

Christianity is the dominate religion in Calliana, with over 80% of the total population adhering to the faith. Of that 80%, 78.4% are Roman Catholics. Catholicism has long been an important part of Callianese national identity, particularly during the Colonial-era during which it served as a means for resistance. The remaining 22% of Callianese Christians belong to various Protestant denominations. These include the United Church of Calliana, which accounts for 10.8% of all Christian Callianese, followed by the Anglican Church of Calliana, accounting for 7.6% of Callianese Christians, and various baptist sects at around ~3%. The largest non-Christian religion in Calliana is Cawyo, or the "Good Message", an indigenous faith with elements adopted from Christianity, primarily from the Quakers, as well as traditional animist beliefs. 8.7% of Callianese citizens adhere to the Good Message, while older indigenous folk religions account for another 5.1% of the population. 4.7% of Callianese are non-religious, while the remaining 1.5% are unspecified.

Largest Cities

Rank

City

Metro area population (2020 est.)

State

1

Kristianasberg

10,650,405

Provins

2

Forsa

8,044,005

Markia

3

Brenna

5,983,614

Vinland

4

Salza

1,794,557

Cayuga

5

Annestown

1,503,804

New Mann

6

Luvaine

1,363,065

Assiniboia

7

Konungsberg

1,200,719

Kebek

8

Sagamore

1,148,608

Nistassia

9

Angelsberg

1,083,256

Huronia

10

Lysa

1,011,140

Provins

Government and Politics


Government

The Palace of the Revolution, Calliana's
Legislative Building, Brenna

Politics

Report