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Azania

The State of Azania

Flag

Coat of Arms


Motto

Uhuru na Umoja
Freedom and Unity


Anthem: TBD


Location


Location in Africa (blue) and in the African Union (light blue)


Population
density

220,574,000
32/km2

Capital

Ushirikiano

Largest city

Kweneng



Official language

Kiswahili

National language(s)

Kiswahili
chiShona
isiNguni
Kikongo

Demonym

Azanian



Ethnic groups

81.0% Bantu
3.1% European
2% Khoesān
1.2% Asian
1.1% Maghrebis
1.0% Arab
10.6% others



Religion

83.9% atheist/irreligious,
7.14% Traditional faiths,
2% Christianity,
7.8% other



Government

Semi-presidential republic

President

Zuziwe Xitu

Prime Minister

Bwezani Kayira



Legislature

Bunge la Azania

Upper house

Mkutano wa Mikoa

Lower house

Mkutano wa Watu



Currency

Azan (₳)

GDP
per capita

US$ 13.8 trillion
US$ 62,564.03

HDI

0.904 High



Time zone

GMT+1 - GMT+2
(Azanian Standard Time)

Calling code

+27

Drives on the

Right

ISO code

AZN

Internet LTD

.an

Azania, officially the State of Azania, is a large Linksovereign country located in LinkSub-Saharan Africa. It is bounded to the west, south, and east by 8,437 kilometres of coastline stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; and bordered to the north by the neighbouring countries of the Republic of the Congo and Tanzania. Azania is the largest country in Africa, the 6th-largest country in the world by land area, the 3rd largest country in the Linksouthern hemisphere, and, with just over 220 million people, the world's 6th-most populous nation and the most populous nation in the southern hemisphere. Azania boasts various geographical features and a wide range of climates and biomes on the continent and is considered one of the most Linkmegadiverse countries in the world. The Azanian city of Kweneng is the largest in the country, as well as one of the largest cities in the world; other cities such as Ushirikiano, Luanda, Zvongombe, and Ustawi are among the largest cities on the continent of Africa. Azania is ranked as one of the most megadiverse countries due to its vast array of wildlife, geography, and climate.

Before the foundation of the Eseningizimu Confederacy, the region that would later become Azania had been settled by the Bantu peoples some 2,000-3,000 years ago, in a series of great Linkmigratory waves that spanned all of modern-day Azania. Several Bantu tribes would be established in the various regions of sub-Saharan Africa south of the Congo River. Bringing iron tools, crops such as Linkcassava, Linksorghum, and Linkrice south with them, the Bantu moved swiftly into the south, displacing the aboriginal Linkpygmies and LinkKhoisans who once dominated the region, and forcing them into isolated pockets within the tropical rainforests of the LinkCongo Basin, and the arid lands of LinkSouthern Africa. While many of these migrants ultimately turned to hunter-gatherer lifestyles to support themselves, others founded great empires that dominated large swathes of territory in the newly conquered lands and built great cities such as M'banza-Kongo and Great Zimbabwe.

As a response to increasingly aggressive and belligerent actions from LinkPortugal, representatives of the Kingdom of Mutapa were dispatched in 1603 to both the Nguni Kingdom and the Kingdom of Kongo, proposing a military alliance between the three great empires. By this point, the relationship between Kongo and Portugal was openly hostile, and Mutapa had suffered large territorial losses to the Portuguese through a series of conflicts. While the Nguni Kingdom had never directly encountered the Portuguese, it nevertheless considered Portugal a great threat to the region based on the testimony of the Mutapan and Kongolese kingdoms. A mutual protection pact was signed between the three states in 1604; this date is taken as the founding of the Eseningizimu Confederacy.

Beginning in 1810, the leaders of the constituent nations of the Eseningizimu Confederacy met to discuss the growing threat that European powers and their colonial ambitions posed to the confederacy. By this point, the British had already seized control of the Cape Colony and claimed vast areas of land along the southwest African coast. After the final meeting in 1816 (which would later be known as the Ushirikiano Conference), it was agreed that each constituent state of the confederacy would integrate into a political union under a single government and monarch. A few months later, on 13 October, Azania was formed.

Azania swiftly increased its holdings within Southern Africa, rapidly expanding across Sub-Saharan Africa where it would compete with various European powers for dominance over the region. This eventually led to several wars and armed conflicts between these powers and Azania throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in the 1880-1885 Anglo-Azanian War. After solidifying its dominance in the region, rapid economic and industrial growth followed throughout the country, as the Azanians tapped into the vast mineral riches of the continent to fuel the development of their homeland into a modern industrialised nation. In 1890, a new constitution was promulgated, which laid the foundation for the Azanian state as it exists today. Centuries of interethnic marriage and cultural blending saw a shift away from a state with multiple distinct peoples, and the formation of a singular national identity forged from centuries of resistance to foreign powers. The Azanian Renaissance of the 1920s, a period of rapid economic expansion, low unemployment and poverty rates, industrial growth, and reduced government regulations and inflation rates, saw Azania's international profile increase to remarkable levels.

The country chose not to involve itself in the First World War, regarding the conflict as purely European and adopted a stance of neutrality for its duration. Instead, Azania opted to play the role of supplier, providing food and arms to both sides throughout the war, and reaping the financial benefits that this "bipartisan" approach brought to the country. Azania did take part in the Second World War, entering the conflict on the side of the Allied Powers, after the Italians invaded Ethiopia for the second time. The country covered the African theatre of the war for the Allies and helped to secure the Suez Canal during the North African Campaign. Azania joined the United Nations as a founding member in 1945 and donated to the Linkreconstruction of Europe in the aftermath of the war. During the Cold War, Azania pursued a policy of neutrality, though it actively and sometimes aggressively promoted the decolonisation of Africa and Asia by European powers.

Azania has since emerged as one of the leading powers on the world stage, hosting numerous international events and summits and serving as an anchor for the African Union and the Non-Aligned Movement within the United Nations. Classified as a "developed nation" in international statistics, the country boasts a high standard of living and a stable political climate. Wielding a powerful military force and exerting considerable diplomatic influence, Azania is often referred to as the "industrial heart of the world", producing goods and services for all nations of the globe, and reaping the benefits of its status as a peaceful, neutral world power.

Etymology


Azania has its etymological roots in LinkAncient Greek. The usage of the name Azania can be traced back to LinkAncient Greece, to LinkPliny the Elder and his mention of the "Azanian Sea", which began somewhere in the vicinity of ancient LinkAdulis in modern-day Ethiopia. The region of Azania (Ancient Greek: Ἀζανία, Azanía), was believed to have extended from Adulis down to the southern coast of Africa, as described in the ancient Greek text known as the LinkPeriplus of the Erythraean Sea. Though there existed and still exist today some dispute as to the starting point of the region, most modern scholars agree to some extent that "Azania" described in part or whole, some part of eastern Africa, though the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea never mentions the dark-skinned LinkEthiopians, whom the Greeks had full knowledge of and knew resided in the region. Other beliefs regarding Azania was its existence as an ancient continent by modern geologists, who believed that the continent of Azania may have existed in the region of LinkMadagascar, existing in the area as part of a greater part of that island nation some 850 million years ago. Over several million years, the continent may have collided with mainland Africa, resulting in the formation of the East Africa Orogeny, which split off in time to form the Malagasy Orogeny.

The standard way to refer to a citizen of Azania is as an "Azanian".

History


Prehistoric history

Azania is widely believed by most Linkpaleoanthropologists to have been host to the earliest inhabited regions on Earth, with some of the oldest human fossils dated back about four million years ago. Fossils of LinkAustralopithecus africanus, commonly held to be the first of the precursor species to evolve into modern man, were discovered in Southern Azania, where radiometric dating placed the age of the fossils in the range of 3.9–3.0 million years LinkBP. Another species known as LinkHomo naledi, discovered in 1949, were later carbon-dated with a range dating them to about 1.9 million–600,000 years BP. The eventual emergence of LinkHomo sapiens sometime between 150,000–100,000 years BP, saw the formation of hunter-gather tribes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and migration to other regions of planet 50,000–60,000 years ago. The desertification of the LinkSahara, beginning in 5000 BCE, from a change in the earth's axial tilt, cut off much of the African continent in the south from the rest of the human population. Before this period, the Sahara was one of the largest grassland regions on the planet, consisting of flat plains and fertile valleys stretching from the LinkAtlantic Ocean in the west to the LinkRed Sea in the east.

In the region of the LinkNiger Delta, the ancestors of the Niger-Congo peoples settled down into sedentary communities harvesting rice and cassava crops and developing some of the most complex civilisations in Africa. Cultures such as the Nok thrived in the region of modern-day Nigeria for centuries before the eventual Bantu expansion and settled much of the neighbouring lands leading to rapid overpopulation within the river basin of the Niger.

Bantu expansion


San rock art depicting a shield-
carrying Bantu warrior

Around 1000 BCE, the Bantu people began what has since become one of the largest periods of mass human migration in recorded history. Hundreds of thousands of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated south into the region of Central Africa, bringing with them the developments of the early West African civilizations, namely iron tools, agricultural practices, deforestation, cattle and livestock, and numerous crops that would later dominate the landscape of the region south of the Congo River. Various cultures would be established in the lands conquered by the Bantu people, such as the Kongo, Yaka, Mbundu, Luba and Lunda, Shona, and Nguni. The consensus around the migration of the Bantu is that it mostly took place in two waves; the first wave moving from the Niger Delta region into the Congo Basin, and the second wave moving from the basin into the regions of East Africa and Southern Africa.

Modern expeditions conducted during the 19th and 20th centuries revealed, however, that the migration of the Bantu did not take place in a vacuum, with several aboriginal people such as the pygmies and Khoisan-speaking people of southern Africa, residing in the region before the arrival of the Bantu. Little evidence exists as to whether or not the migratory waves of the Bantu which displaced the pygmies and the bushmen were peaceful or not, but given the abundance of similar cases such in Europe, the Middle East, and India during the same period, most researchers have concluded that violence may have been utilised to some degree by the migratory waves of the Bantu. In the place of the natives who would be forced off of their lands, the Kongo, Shona, and numerous other Bantu ethnic groups took the place of the indigenous peoples. Urban settlements, irrigation of croplands, and centralised governments did not emerge as uniformly across the southern Bantu groups as they did with the northern ones. However, many of these groups did maintain centralised states that would come to dominate much of the region.

Pre-Azanian states

Kingdom of Kongo
Main article: Kingdom of Kongo


M'banza Kongo, the capital city
of the Kingdom of Kongo in
the early 18th century

According to Kongo tradition, the kingdom's origin lay in Mpemba Kasi, a large Bantu kingdom to the south of the Mbata Kingdom, which merged with that state to form the Kingdom of Kongo around 1375 CE. Mpemba Kasi was located just south of modern-day Matadi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A dynasty of rulers from this small polity built up its rule along the Kwilu valley, and its members are buried in Nsi Kwilu, their capital. Traditions from the 17th century allude to this sacred burial ground. According to the missionary Girolamo da Montesarchio, an Italian Capuchin who visited the area from 1650 to 1652, the site was so holy that looking upon it was deadly. At some point around 1375, Nimi a Nzima, ruler of Mpemba Kasi, allied with Nsaku Lau, the ruler of the neighbouring Mbata Kingdom. Nimi a Nzima married Luqueni Luansanze, a member of the Mbata people and possibly Nsaku Lau's daughter. This alliance guaranteed that each of the two allies would help ensure the success of their ally's lineage in the other's territory.

The first king of the Kingdom of Kongo Dya Ntotila was Nimi a Nzima and Luqueni Luansanze's son Lukeni Lua Nimi (circa 1380–1420). The name Nimi a Lukeni appeared in later oral traditions and some modern historians popularized it. Luke Lua Nimi, or Nimi a Lukeni, became the founder of Kongo when he conquered the kingdom of the Mwene Kabunga (or Mwene Mpangala), which lay on a mountain to his south. He transferred his rule to this mountain, the Mongo dia Kongo or "mountain of Kongo", and made Mbanza Kongo, the town there, his capital. Two centuries later the Mwene Kabunga's descendants still symbolically challenged the conquest in an annual celebration. The rulers that followed Lukeni all claimed some form of relation to his Kanda, or lineage, and were known as the Kilukeni. The Kilukeni Kanda or "house" as it was recorded in Portuguese documents, ruled Kongo unopposed until 1567.

After the death of Nimi a Lukeni, his brother, Mbokani Mavinga, took over the throne and ruled until approximately 1467. He had two wives and nine children. His rule saw an expansion of the Kingdom of Kongo to include the neighbouring state the Kingdom of Loango and other areas now encompassed by the current Republic of Congo.

The Mwene Kongos often gave governorships to members of their family or their clients. As this centralization increased, the allied provinces gradually lost influence until their powers were only symbolic, manifested in Mbata, once a co-kingdom, but by 1620 simply known by the title "Grandfather of the King of Kongo" (Nkaka'ndi a Mwene Kongo).

The high concentration of population around Mbanza Kongo and its outskirts played a critical role in the centralization of Kongo. The capital was a densely settled area in an otherwise sparsely populated region where rural population densities probably did not exceed 5 persons per square kilometre. Early Portuguese travellers described Mbanza Kongo as a large city, the size of the Portuguese town of Évora as it was in 1491. By the end of the sixteenth century, Kongo's population was probably close to half a million people in a core region of some 130,000 square kilometres. By the early seventeenth century the city and its hinterland had a population of around 100,000, or one out of every five inhabitants in the Kingdom (according to baptismal statistics compiled by Jesuit priests). This concentration allowed resources, soldiers, and surplus foodstuffs to be readily available at the request of the king. This made the king overwhelmingly powerful and caused the kingdom to become highly centralised.

By the time of the first recorded contact with the Europeans, the Kingdom of Kongo was a highly developed state at the centre of an extensive trading network. Apart from natural resources and ivory, the country manufactured and traded copperware, ferrous metal goods, raffia cloth, and pottery. The Kongo people spoke in the Kikongo language. The eastern regions, especially that part known as the Seven Kingdoms of Kongo dia Nlaza (or in Kikongo Mumbwadi or "the Seven"), were particularly famous for the production of cloth.

Luba-Lunda Empire
Main article: Luba-Lunda Empire

The Luba-Lunda Empire was a confederation of small states in what is now the modern-day province of Ustawi. Archaeological research shows that the Upemba depression had been occupied continuously since at least the 4th century CE. In the 4th century, the region was occupied by iron-working farmers. Over the centuries, the people of the region learned to use nets and harpoons, make dugout canoes, and clear canals through swamps. They had also learned techniques for drying fish, which were an important source of protein; they began trading the dried fish with the inhabitants of the protein-starved savanna.

Initially, the core of what would become the Luba-Lunda Empire was a commune called a N'Gaange in the kiLunda (kiyaka-kipunu) language. It was ruled over by a monarch called the Mwane-a-n'Gaange. One of these rulers, Ilunga Tshibinda, came from the nation of Luba where his brother ruled and married a woman from the Luba Kingdom. Their son became the first paramount ruler of the Luba-Lunda Empire, uniting the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda and creating the title of Mwane-a-Yamvu.

Kingdom of Mutapa
Main article: Kingdom of Mutapa


Gatsi Rusere's royal yacht
on the Zambezi river

The origins of the ruling dynasty at Mutapa go back to some time in the first half of the 15th century. According to oral tradition, the first "Mwene" ("Prince") was a warrior prince named Nyatsimba Mutota from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe sent to find new sources of salt in the north. The first legend states Prince Mutota found his salt among the Tavara, a Shona subdivision, who were prominent elephant hunters. The second says that there was a famine in the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. Mutota escaped the famine, and then found the land inhabited by a tribe whose name has been lost to history. They were conquered, and a capital city was established 350 km north of Great Zimbabwe at Zvongombe by the Zambezi.

Mutota's successor, Mwenemutapa Matope, extended this new kingdom into an empire encompassing most of the lands between Tavara and the Indian Ocean. This empire had achieved uniting several different peoples in southern Africa by building strong, well-trained armies and encouraging states to join voluntarily, offering membership in the Great council of the Empire to any who joined without resistance. The Mwenemutapa became very wealthy by exploiting copper from Chidzurgwe and ivory from the middle Zambezi. This expansion weakened the Torwa kingdom, the southern Shona state from which Mutota and his dynasty originated. Mutapa's armies overran the kingdom of the Manyika as well as the coastal kingdoms of Kiteve and Madanda. By the time the Portuguese arrived on the coast of southeast Azania, the Mutapa Kingdom was the premier Shona state in the region. Matope raised a large army that conquered the Dande area. The empire had reached its full extent by the year 1480, a mere 50 years following its creation.

Nguni Kingdom
Main article: Nguni Kingdom

The Nguni were originally a major clan in what is today Southern Azania, founded in the 15th century by Ntu. At the time, the area was occupied by many splintered Nguni communities and clans (also called the isizwe people or nation, or were called isibongo, referring to their clan or family name), the strongest of these being the Mthethwa clan. In 1498, several Nguni clans were integrated into a sort of confederacy with the Mthethwa clan predominating. Dingiswayo, the last Mthethwa monarch, was killed in a battle with the Ndwandwe in 1553. The Mthethwa Empire was superseded by the Nguni Kingdom under Mnguni, who was a former lieutenant in the Mthethwa army. Many military and administrative institutions, including the system of age regiments that later characterised the Nguni Kingdom were utilised by the Mthethwa, although an older theory that credits the Nyambose rulers of Mthethwa with the introduction of amabutho is no longer accepted by modern-day Azanian scholars because of evidence for the widespread existence of amabutho going back into the 14th century and perhaps earlier.

The Nguni people formed a powerful state in 1553 under the leader Mnguni. Mnguni, as the commander of the Mthethwa Empire and king of the Nguni people (of whom he was the eponymous monarch), united what was once a confederation of tribes into an imposing empire under Nguni hegemony. Mnguni built a militarised system known as Impi featuring conscription, a standing army, new weaponry, regimentation, and innovative battle tactics. Seeking to expand his empire, Mnguni initiated the Ukunqoba, a decades-long period of conquest, defeating and integrating tribe after tribe until by 1600 - just under 50 years after its foundation - the Nguni Kingdom reached had reached its full extent.

The Nguni Kingdom's success was due in large part to its development of a form of a government durable enough to withstand the disruptions of inter-tribal disputes and flexible enough to incorporate foreign tribes and governments. Law and order were handled by the king, known as the Inkosi, with the assistance of a court known as the Bamthola. The chiefs reigned over their subjects through clan chiefs known as Ukopha.

Various offshoot groups of the Nguni would go on to establish states immediately beyond the Nguni Kingdom's borders. While nominally independent, they were effectively vassals of the Nguni Kingdom.

European exploration and colonisation


An illustration of the São
Cristóvão and São Pantaleão,
the ships used by Dias on his
voyage

The Portuguese sought to expand their holdings on the African continent and laid the framework for a lucrative spice trade with India, establishing forts across the coastline and introducing European goods into the interior of Africa. Trade between Europe and the lands of West Africa and the tribes and kingdoms of the region would flourish for a time, with the trade of gold, ivory, and exotic fruits expanding, and the provision of slaves from the interior of the continent being instrumental in the foundation of the transatlantic slave trade. Portuguese exploration of the interior would be limited, however, as its main focus was on the expansion of the spice trade in the east, though their explorers and traders would continue to visit the continent and establish trading posts along the coastline for the financial benefit of Portugal. Except for the colonisation of Cape Verde in 1462, and the much earlier colonisation of the Canary Islands in 1402, the Portuguese and later European nations would limit themselves almost exclusively to the coastline of Africa, where the threat of malaria and yellow fever could be avoided. Later Portuguese explorers would return to Africa to better establish a naval route to India, leading to the discovery of new lands in the southern regions of the continent. In the south, Bartolomeu Dias rounded a tumultuous region of the sea near the area they christened the "Cape of Storms" in 1488. Lacking the supplies to continue sailing beyond the cape and eastward, Dias and his crew returned to Portugal, where they later named the area the Cape of Good Hope. Nearly a decade later, Vasco da Gama would expand upon the discovery of what Dias had claimed to be the southernmost tip of the continent, and sail north of the cape to East Africa. By 1498, de Gama had discovered the lands of the Nguni, which he named Natal.

Da Gama would later sail north of Natal, and into the region of East Africa, where he reached the prosperous Kingdom of Mutapa, where Arab, Chinese, Indian, and Turkish traders could be found in great numbers. Portuguese forts would be established in only a handful of locations in the lands they claimed in the modern-day provinces of Luanda and Sofala. Beyond this, European involvement in Africa would be greatly restrained by their geopolitical needs in the Western Hemisphere and the Far East of Asia. Much of the allure that did bring Europeans to the continent was the prospect of slave labour, vital to the survival of many colonies established on the islands surrounding Africa, and the growing colonies of the New World, where spices and cash crops were taking over the economy. Aside from these considerations, Africa remained a "virgin continent", yet uncolonised by the European nations that were limited in their aspirations due to the hostile conditions of the interior.

Eseningizimu Confederacy

TBD

Portuguese Wars

Unification

The second half 18th century saw the Atlantic slave trade reach its peak. Europeans were growing wealthier during the century, and more people could afford luxury goods such as sugar. As a result, the market for such luxury goods continued expanding; after 1750 sugar was the most valuable commodity imported into Europe, outpacing the spices from the East. These goods were produced mostly by slave labour, thus the demand for slaves increased exponentially.

This presented particular a challenge for the Kingdom of Kongo. Before its annexation in 1665, the Portuguese colony of Angola was one of the centres of the international slave trade, prompting conflict between Portugal and Kongo. Despite emerging victorious in the Second Portuguese War, Kongo lost significant amounts of territory to the Portuguese, chief among which were the tributary states of Ngoyo, Loango, and Kakongo. The Portuguese consolidated the three kingdoms into the Colony of Cabinda, which quickly became the centre of the slave trade in the region. This would later create problems for the Kingdom of Kongo as rogue groups from Ngoyo and Kakongo began attacking and enslaving the inhabitants of the kingdom and the surrounding areas. These groups, called Jaga (not to be confused with the earlier Jaga of the Kasanje Kingdom), conducted raids on remote eastern Kongolese towns, kidnapping adults and stealing children to sell them at Chioua, a major embarkment point for slaves in Central Africa. As the demand for slaves grew in the second half of the 18th century, the Jaga raids became more frequent and violent. A major refugee crisis developed as people fled the eastern provinces and flooded the interior. This negatively impacted the mercantile Kongolese economy as the crisis severely interrupted the supply of goods, leading to a decline in output and productivity.

On the opposite side of the continent, the Kingdom of Mutapa was dealing with a similar problem - the Indian Ocean slave trade. Exports of slaves to the Muslim world from the Indian Ocean began after Muslim Arab and Swahili traders won control of the Swahili Coast and sea routes during the 9th century. These traders captured Bantu peoples (Zanj) from the interior, including some of the northern areas of Mutapa, and brought them to the coast. The captives were sold throughout the Middle East and Eastern Africa. This trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labour on plantations in the region. Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year. Mutapa responded by waging war on the Yao kingdoms, which were heavily involved in the Indian Ocean slave trade, ultimately succeeding in securing its lands.

The second major contribution was the period of recession that occurred from the mid to late 18th century to the early 19th century. The recession began in the Kingdom of Kongo, partly the result of economic stagnation caused by the Jaga raids. Certain groups were particularly badly affected: cloth exports fell by 35 per cent in 1772, collapsing by up to 90 per cent in some parts of the kingdom. Many farms and plantations, particularly in the eastern provinces, were abandoned during the Jaga raids, decreasing the harvest and increasing the price of food, which damaged the overall economy.

Expansion

TBD

Industrialisation


Shungu Namutitima Bridge, 1872

Following the country's formation in 1816, it was agreed that all resources at the disposal of Azania's nascent government would be directed toward the preservation of the homeland and its sovereignty. At the time of its conception in the early 19th century, it had always been planned that any industrial developments in the West would be, to the best of the government's ability, emulated within Azania. With this knowledge in hand, several wealthy individuals resolved to partner themselves with the government and help exploit the vast natural resources of the country. Beginning as early as the 1830s, railway lines had been laid down from the ports of Luanda to the capital of Ushirikiano, and snaking their way into the various interior cities of M'banza Kongo, Mongu, and Gatooma, where plantation-style farms were being established. By the 1850s, the railroads of Azania stretched along the Congo River from Luanda along the western shoreline, across the north, and down the southern shoreline to Ibayi. The country's many coal mines would serve a vital role in fueling the industrial expansion of Azania in various locations throughout the young nation.

Several individuals who aspired to become the new industrial magnates of this country would be men such as Nkanga Kasongo, who would found the Azania Coal and Steel Company, and Bonginkhosi Soyengwase, who pioneered petroleum extraction and refining by way of Pan-African Petroleum, and Dulani Nkosi, who would found the Trans-African Railway Company. These three men and many others would play a crucial role in the industrialisation of Azania and its ability to enter into the status of an industrialised economy by the turn of the century. Azania's industrial growth was not without outside help, with industrialists from foreign nations assisting with the development of the tools and technologies that would make the country more suitable for the needs of an industrialised economy. Making use of its great wealth of natural resources, Azania would contract out the extraction of its mineral riches to several foreign companies in exchange for a 40% stake in the mines and refineries that were established, as well as the employment of Azanians in the regions where these resources were to be extracted. Strict contracts were written up to ensure that the European powers were excluded from making claims to anything found within Azania, a task made easier by the fact that many of the lawyers involved had been educated in Western law. Unlike other non-western states who had little knowledge of the legal practices of the European governments, Azania would negotiate from a position of strength through its knowledge of Western law.

Naturally, negotiations with far more powerful states for industrial development would be toothless without a means of enforcement. Well aware of how the Europeans had effectively utilised military action as a tool of subjection, the government of Azania was keen to develop the military capacity of the country. The Azanian Army and the Azanian Navy had existed as mere policing forces before the 1830s. However, the renewed interest of the Europeans in the African continent, as breakthroughs in the field of medicine made it easier for Europeans to survive the hostile biomes of Africa where it had once been next to impossible, made it clear that this had to change. To that end, the army would be expanded from a mere police force of some 25,000 men in 1820 to a full-trained army of 150,000 by 1830; an increase made possible by the foundation of military arsenals across the country to support the formation of an indigenous arms industry. The navy itself was in more dire circumstances, as it consisted of only ten sloops of war donated by the Dutch in 1816 which were primarily designed to serve as customs enforcement. With the industrial growth of Azania allowing for a more capable shipbuilding industry, the navy would grow from ten sloops-of-war to a modern, heavily armed force capable of interdicting and capturing slave ships from West Africa.

The rapid influx of new migrants combined with Azania's high birthrate necessitated an accelerated industrialisation process across Azania, which allowed for and required an equally rapid development of the country's critical infrastructure, such as ports, factories, mills, railroads, and canals. Several major shipyards were built in the provinces of Itheku, Luanda, Benguela, and Zambesia, where the export of the country's natural resources could be facilitated with ease, especially as the overall output of the interior mines increased with the rise of available workers. This in turn gave way to the construction of steel mills and arsenals that would be completed by the 1850s, which would fuel the expansion of Azania's rail network. The reign of Cetshwayo would see the funding of major public work initiatives, such as the Housing Act of 1870 and the Trans-African Railroad in 1881, the latter of which would serve as a catalyst of Azania's first major conflict on the continent as an independent nation. Regardless, Azania's industrial capacity would balloon over several years, encouraged by direct investment from both the government and local industrial magnates, as well as Azania's rapid population growth. Members of the black diaspora from across the globe, as well as white, Asian, and Arab immigrants, would leave for Azania for the promise of a new life and a secure future; Azania's population would grow from about fifteen million in 1850 to more than fifty million by 1900. By 1890, Azania would become the most industrialised nation in Africa and the most industrialised nation anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere.

20th century
Main articles: History of Azania (1890-1914), Azania during the World Wars, History of Azania (1945-1995)

Recent history
Main article: History of Azania (1996-present)

TBD

Geography and climate


Geography


Topography of Azania

The high southern and eastern Azanian plateaus, rarely falling below 600 m (2,000 ft), have a mean elevation of about 1,000 m (3,300 ft). The Great Southern Plateau, as far as about 12° S, is bounded east, west and south by bands of high ground which fall steeply to the coasts. On this account, Southern Azania has a general resemblance to an inverted saucer. Due south, the plateau rim is formed by three parallel steps with level ground between them. The largest of these level areas, the ǃ’Aukarob, is a dry, barren region, and a large tract of the plateau proper is of a still more arid character and is known as the Kgalagadi Desert.

The break-up of Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic times led to a major reorganization of the river courses of various large Azanian rivers including the Congo, Orange, Limpopo and Zambezi rivers.

The most remote head-stream of the Congo is the Chambezi River, which flows southwest into the marshy Lake Bangweulu. From this lake issues the Congo, known in its upper course by various names. Flowing first south, it afterwards turns north through Lake Mweru and descends to the forest-clad basin of west equatorial Africa. Traversing this in a majestic northward curve, and receiving vast supplies of water from many great tributaries, it finally turns southwest and cuts away to the Atlantic Ocean through the western highlands. Of the remaining rivers of the Atlantic basin, the Orange, in the extreme south, brings the drainage from the Drakensberg on the opposite side of the continent, while the Kunene, Kwanza, Ogowe and Sanaga drain the west coastal highlands.

Of the rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean, the only one draining any large part of the interior plateaus is the Zambezi, whose western branches rise in the western coastal highlands. The main stream rises at 11°21′3″ S 24°22′ E, at an elevation of 1,500 m (4,900 ft). It flows to the west and south for a considerable distance before turning eastward. All the largest tributaries, including the Shire, the outflow of Lake Azania, flow down the southern slopes of the band of high ground stretching across the continent from 10° to 12° S. In the southwest, the Zambezi system interlaces with that of the Taukhe, from which it at times receives surplus water. The rest of the water of the Taukhe, known in its middle course as the Okavango, is lost in a system of swamps and saltpans that was formerly centred in Lake Ngami, now dried up. Farther south, the Limpopo drains a portion of the interior plateau but breaks through the bounding highlands on the side of the continent nearest its source. The Rovuma, along with the Rufiji and Tana, principally drain the outer slopes of the African Great Lakes highlands.

The principal lakes of Azania are situated in the African Great Lakes plateau. The lakes found within the Great Rift Valley have steep sides and are very deep. This is the case with Lake Azania, with depths of 800 m (2,600 ft). Besides the African Great Lakes, other Azanian lakes are Bangweulu and Mweru, traversed by the head-stream of the Congo.

Divergent opinions have been held as to the mode of origin of the African Great Lakes which some geologists have considered to represent an old arm of the sea, dating from a time when the whole central Congo basin was underwater; others hold that the lake water has accumulated in a depression caused by subsidence. The former view is based on the existence in the lake of organisms of a decidedly marine type. They include jellyfish, molluscs, prawns, crabs, etc.

TBD

Climate

Azania has a generally temperate climate because it is surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides and because it is located in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere. This varied topography and oceanic influence result in a great variety of climatic zones. The climatic zones range from subtropical and temperate regions in the north and south respectively but also include humid subtropical, a Mediterranean climate, highland subtropical, oceanic, desert and semi-arid regions. Except for the lower regions of northern Azania and the interior regions of central and western Azania, the country rarely suffers from extreme heat. In addition to that, winters in Azania - which occur between June and August - are generally cool and dry, except in the southwest. Cool southeasterly winds and high humidity bring cool conditions in the winter. The Namib desert along the western Azanian coastline is the driest area in the country and the second driest desert in the world after the Atacama desert.

Altitude plays an outsize role in moderating the temperatures, especially in southern, southeastern, and parts of northern Azania. The southern, southeastern prairie region and parts of northern Azania are known as the uwanja, divided into the Uwanjachini and Uwanjajuu regions.

The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous fynbos biome of shrubland and thicket. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors during the Age of Sail, causing many shipwrecks. Further east on the southern coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. The Namib and Kalahari deserts are arid lands in the centre-southwest separating the highlands, woodlands, croplands and pastures of the wetter and higher southeastern interior from the Atlantic ocean. In addition, the uKhahlamba and Southern Highlands separate the highland areas and coastal plains centred on southeastern Azania in the north and southern Azania to the south, the latter of which are often prone to flooding every few years. In the southeast, the river systems of the Zambezi and Vhembe basins form natural barriers and sea lanes.

Biodiversity and environment

TBD

Politics and government


The Constitution of Azania defines the political system; Azania is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy. The prime minister (whose official title is Waziri Mkuu) is the country's most powerful person. The current constitution was enacted in 1890 and was most recently amended on 1 July 2001.

The constitutional history of Azania dates back to the constitution of 1890. In June 1889, Azanian king Cetshwayo kaMpande appointed the reformer Gcobisa Ntshona as Prime Minister. The resulting general election in 1890 convened the Bunge to draft and approve a new constitution. After a national referendum on 6 December 1890, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution - a culmination of the Azanian transition to republicanism. The constitution also enshrined universal suffrage as a "central tenet" of Azanian democracy, extending the right to vote to all Azanians over 18 years of age regardless of gender, making Azania the first country in modern history to grant women the right to vote.

Government


Zuziwe Xitu
President

Bwezani Kayira
Prime Minister

The head of state of Azania is the president of Azania (Kiswahili: Rais wa Azania). The position of the president replaced that of the monarch with the promulgation of the 1890 Constitution, and the powers of the monarch were transferred to the presidency, making the president the most powerful person in the country. In the last few decades, however, the powers of the presidency have been diminished. Constitutional amendments, which came into effect in 1984, 1986 and 2001 have made the presidency a primarily ceremonial office. Nevertheless, the president still leads the nation's foreign policy together with the cabinet and is the commander-in-chief of the Azanian Armed Forces. The position still entails some powers, including responsibility for foreign policy in cooperation with the cabinet, being the head of the armed forces, some decree and pardoning powers, and some appointive powers. Direct elections are used to elect the president for a term of five years and a maximum of two consecutive 5-year terms.

The prime minister of Azania (Kiswahili: Waziri Mkuu wa Azania) is the leader of the Azanian government. The prime minister's appointment follows the parliamentary election, which is scheduled to be held once every four years. Under the provisions of the Constitution of Azania, the president nominates a prime minister after the parties in the parliament have negotiated the distribution of seats in the new cabinet and the government's programme. The parliament must ratify the nominated prime minister with an absolute majority in a confidence vote without other candidates. If the nominee does not receive sufficient support, a new round of negotiations and a second nomination by the president follows. If the second nominee also fails to gain an absolute majority, a third vote is held, in which any member of parliament can nominate a candidate; in this round, a plurality is sufficient for election.

The legislative branch is made up of the Assembly of Representatives (Mkutano wa Baraza la Wawakilishi), a lower house with N members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and the Assembly of Provinces (Mkutano wa Mikoa), an upper house with N seats of which N are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other N appointed by the provincial legislatures to also serve four-year terms.

Administrative subdivisions

TBD

Law and justice


Good Hope Provincial Police
Department motorcycle

Law enforcement in Azania is constitutionally vested solely with the provinces, a major exception to the precedence of the national government within the Azanian political system. Nevertheless, the country uses a uniform civil legal system, wherein law arises primarily from written statutes. The supreme Azania law is the Constitution of Azania, which regulates the functioning of public bodies and the fundamental rights of the Azanian people. The Constitution, as well as being directly applicable by the judiciary, enjoys material supremacy that determines the rest of the laws in Azania. In agreement with the principles of the Constitution, Azanian law only prohibit actions detrimental to society and should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

Azania does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press were first enacted in 1896. Some consider hate speech laws in Azania to be too broad or severe, undermining freedom of speech. Azania has laws against racism and hate speech, while the 1946 Incitement to Hate Act makes it an offence in Azania to question the existence or size of the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, such as the Holocaust.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Azanian penal and civil codes respectively. The Azanian penal system seeks the rehabilitation of offenders and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges sit side by side with professional judges.

Human rights

Human rights in Azania enjoy a high level of protection, both in theory and in practice, and are enshrined in the Constitution of Azania. The country has ratified most international human rights treaties. Reports from independent organisations such as Amnesty International certify a high level of compliance with human rights. The 2010 Freedom in the World report by US-funded Freedom House gives Azania a score of "1" (the best possible) for both political rights and civil liberties.

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of Azania. The Constitution is the basis for the principle of state secularism practised in Azania. Nevertheless, the Bunge has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults and has banned a number of these movements as of 2020.

Azania was among the first countries in the world to decriminalise homosexuality, doing so in 1910 after a landmark judgement by the Constitutional Court declared laws criminalising homosexuality to be unconstitutional. Same-sex marriage was legalised the same year, and same-sex adoption followed suit in 1921 after a second Constitutional Court judgement. Today, Azania provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Azania is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with 92% of those surveyed saying that homosexuality should be accepted.

Foreign relations

As the largest nation in Africa with the third-largest economy in the world, Azania is recognised as a major player on the geopolitical stage. A founding member of the United Nations, Azania has ongoing diplomatic relations with virtually all sovereign states in the world. The country hosts embassies and diplomatic missions from all other nations in the world, with the exceptions of Israel, North Korea, and Liberia. Azania itself has diplomatic postings across the planet, with a total of N missions in other nations, along with another N embassies under the oversight of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, which manages the country's foreign affairs policies. Azania is a member of several international organisations, such as the African Union, the G8 and the G20, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the World Trade Organisation, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone.

Historically, Azania sought to maintain an independent foreign policy that ensured the continued sovereignty of the state from much larger and more powerful global empires, such as the ones once maintained by the United Kingdom and France. However, following the end of World War I, Azania adopted a much more aggressive geopolitical stance that saw it depart from its old, isolationist views, and move toward a policy of intervening in conflicts it deemed a threat to its national security and geopolitical interests. To ensure it had a place in the new global order of nations, Azania entered into World War II on the side of the Allies, and following that conflict, sought to counterbalance the rapid bi-polarisation of the world during the Cold War by following a policy of neutrality. Throughout the entirety of the Cold War Azania was keen to chart its own path, seeking to ensure stability and independence in Africa, which inadvertently drew the country into numerous conflicts across the continent. Azania maintained a hostile relationship with France throughout the entire period.

Military


The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
ANS Gwabalanda Mkhwanazi

The president is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces, though the prime minister has the responsibility of appointing the Minister of Defense and the Defence Board. The Ministry of Defence is tasked with overseeing the operations of the five branches of the armed forces, which include the Army, Navy, Air Force, Naval Infantry Corps, and Coast Guard. The Azanian Cybersecurity Forces are an independent force that operates under the oversight of the Ministry of State Security and is not traditionally considered a uniformed branch of the military. Collectively, these six forces comprise a total of N million active personnel, with another N million in reserves. The reserve force consists of two units in the form of the National Ready Reserve and the reserve components of the Azanian Armed Forces, the latter of which consists of the individual reserve forces for each of the six branches of the military.

Military service in Azania is fully voluntary, though it can employ a system of conscription by way of the Selective Service System during times of war. Both men and women are legally required to register for the Selective Service upon reaching the age of 18. Azania is capable of deploying its forces anywhere in the world, either by using the Air Force's fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's eight aircraft carriers, and Naval Infantry Corps' five expeditionary units currently at sea with the Third, Fourth, and Second fleets. Azania currently possesses TBD bases and facilities abroad and maintains deployments consisting of more than 100 personnel in TBD foreign countries. In all, there are approximately TBD combat and support personnel from the armed services deployed overseas as of 2021. Azania is widely believed to possess the 3rd-largest stockpile of nuclear warheads in the world. As of 2021, it is believed Azania has about 1,000 nuclear warheads, of which 100-250 are believed to be currently deployed.

In absolute terms, the military budget for the Azanian Armed Forces is the 2nd or 3rd-largest in the world, with a total amount of US$ 254 billion requested and approved for the military for 2021. This amount accounts for approximately 2.52% of the national GDP. Military spending within Azania has an important role in the development of science and technology within the country's various research centres, as the armed forces are one of the largest patrons of research and development in the country. More than a third of all research investment within Azania is funded by the Ministry of Defence, which has a variety of institutions involved in the process of providing research grants to universities and think tanks across Azania.

Economy



View of Kweneng, the financial
centre of Azania

Azania has the world's third-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$13.8 trillion as of 2019. In terms of purchasing power parity, Azania ranks third behind the United States. From 1975 to 2008, the Azanian compounded annual GDP growth was 3.2%. The nation ranks sixteenth in the world in nominal GDP per capita, with citizens making an average of US$69,392 and twelfth in the world in GDP per capita at PPP. Strong labour laws, higher-than-average worker unionisation and the traditionally egalitarian values of Azanian society have kept the wage difference between the lowest-paid workers and the CEOs of most companies much lower than in comparable developed economies.

Azania is the world's second-largest exporter and third-largest importer of goods. Its major trading partners include the European Union, the United States, and other countries in the African Union such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, and the Congo. Throughout the 2010s, petroleum was the most imported commodity, while vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, transport equipment, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics made up the country's largest exports.

In 2019, the private sector was estimated to constitute 87.5% of the economy, with the national government and its departments accounting for 5.5% and local government accounting for the remaining 7%. Considered a postindustrial economy with the service sector constituting 63% of the GDP, Azania still remains an industrial power, producing a large portion of the world's steel, automobiles, ships and electronics. Despite agriculture contributing less than 2 per cent of the country's GDP, Azania has one of the world's most valuable agricultural sectors and is among the world's largest producers of sorghum, millet, chicory roots, grapefruit, maize, soybeans, and cereals, castor oil seed and fibre crops.

In 2019, the Azanian labour force consisted of 139.7 million people. 34% of the workforce is unionised, compared to 24% in the European Union, 18.5% in Japan and 10.8% in the United States. During the 2008 Recession, the Azanian economy lost about one million jobs, with the most affected sector being manufacturing, where up to 400,000 jobs were lost. About 300,000 of those manufacturing jobs returned by 2018, although the industrial sector grew exponentially with the government's sponsorship of automation replacing a majority of the mechanical tasks. Azania ranks behind Korea and Singapore in industrial robots per capita, for every ten thousand workers there are 486 autonomous machines. A 2015 study found that although automation in the manufacturing sector contributed to unemployment, the job losses were fully offset by new job opportunities in other sectors of the economy.

Depending on the company and labour union, the minimum annual leave with pay varies, although the average ranges between 16-20 days. All workers outside the realm of emergency services are guaranteed paid leave fifteen days out of the year. Parental leave is a universal right; each parent receives paid leave, and each parent can transfer a month to the other (therefore there are two transferable months between the parents). Azanian culture traditionally values a strong work ethic, which has been a source of the nation's high workforce productivity, to which Azania ranks 5th in the world, behind Ireland, Norway, Switzerland and Luxembourg. Azanian workers rank sixth in the world in productivity per hour. Workers in Azania are documented as having the highest rates of job satisfaction in the world, with job control and positive work atmospheres being the main contributors. This has generated a healthy work-life balance.

The Azanian economy is an example of a social market economy; a prosperous capitalist welfare state, it features a combination of free-market activity and state ownership in certain key sectors, influenced by both late 19th-century liberalism and later by social democratic governments in the post-World War II era. The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector, energy production, resource extraction, and telecommunications. Through these big companies, the government controls approximately 20% of the stock values at the Kweneng Stock Exchange. When non-listed companies are included, the state has an even higher share in ownership. Azania is a major shipping nation and has the world's tenth-largest merchant fleet by capacity, with a gross tonnage of approximately 35.1 million.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum and minerals. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1940s, which led to a boom in the economy. Azania has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large number of natural resources compared to the size of the population. In 2010, 28% of state revenues were generated from mining and the petroleum industry. The Azanian Government Pension Fund Global, the largest sovereign wealth fund in the world, was established in the 1970s to invest surplus revenues from the mining and petroleum sectors.

LinkResearch and development efforts form an integral part of the Azanian economy. In 2018 Azania ranked fifth globally in terms of the number of science and engineering research papers published. Azania was ranked 6th in the Global Innovation Index in 2019 and 2020.

Energy

In 2015, Azania decommissioned its last coal-fired power plant, subsequently becoming the first country in the world to completely phase out fossil fuels in energy generation. Consequently, Azania is among the smallest emitters of carbon dioxide in the developed world, though it remains the largest polluter on the African continent by a significant margin.

Umeme wa Azania (UMAZ) is the main electricity generation and distribution company in Azania and is also one of the world's largest producers of electricity. In 2018, it accounted for around 22% of the energy produced in Africa, primarily from nuclear power. As of 2020, nuclear power accounts for 80.3% of total production 2020. The balance is generated by renewable energy, such as solar and wind power. Azania has been a leader in nuclear technology and operates the world's largest array of nuclear facilities. Recent studies by the International Atomic Energy Agency claim that Azania's energy policy has reduced the nation's carbon emissions by at least 4,293 million metric tons since 1975. Recent Azanian developments in the field of nuclear technology include the world's first commercially viable sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. The University of Ushirikiano has recently constructed the Azanian Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor modelled after ARC-1 that is set to be fully operational by 2032.

Transport and infrastructure

Azania possesses an extensive rail and freeway system, which has been key to connecting the large country economically. Historically, Azania depended heavily upon rail to transport both freight and passengers. This transitioned to motor vehicles in the mid-20th century, with the extensive growth of the National Freeways, the colloquial term for all controlled-access highways in the country. The development of thoroughfares came to influence the growth of Azanian cities. The Azanian government enacted dirigist policies that developed the state-owned corporation known as the National Rail Authority, which continues to provide passengers with medium to long-distance intercity rail services. Although rail usage is high, most Azanians still hold a driver's license, which is necessary to operate a vehicle within the country.

Within cities, light-rail, buses and subway systems are readily available, with the Kweneng Transit Authority being the largest mass transit operator in Africa, servicing millions of patrons annually. In some cities, outside of Northern Azania, most notably in Eastern Azania, city transit usage is considerably low and citizens remain dependent on automobiles. Ushirikiano has the second-largest transit system, and the city of Ustawi has the third-largest. In 2018, the underground rapid transit of Lydsaamheid was completed, which now ranks as one of the most technologically advanced systems in the world. Several other cities, such as Zvongombe and M'banza Kongo experienced extensive growth in their transit systems after the Urban Transit Expansion Initiative was completed in 1994.

The transportation of freight is carried primarily by freight trains, or barges, most of which are controlled by private corporations. Freight rails are independent of passenger lines, and independently compete to ship goods, with Benguela Railway Corporation, and UMC Freight being the two largest freight companies in the nation. The Zambezi River and the Kwanza River carry the most freight of any river in Azania, transporting goods to the Port of Sofala and the Port of Luanda respectively. Thousands of vessels pass through the Port of Itheku, the largest port in Africa and the primary exit of domestically produced goods. Some of the largest stores of maize, sorghum, millet, steel, rubber, fruits and vegetables exist between the ports of Benguela and Cape Town. Also concentrated between the two ports is the Azanian Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which holds one of the largest emergency supplies of crude oil in the world, with a capacity of 400 million barrels.

The civil airline industry is almost entirely privately owned, while major airports are publicly owned. The three largest airlines in Africa by passengers carried are based in Azania; the state-owned Azanian Airways is the largest airline in Africa and one of the largest airlines in the world. Azanian Airlines, through managerial contracts, also operates Tanzania Airlines. Other major Azanian Airlines include Airlink and Air Azania.

Science and technology
See: Science and technology in Azania

TBD

Resources

In terms of natural resources, Azania has the world's largest resources of platinum and platinum group elements, chromium, vanadium, and cobalt, and has large deposits of oil, uranium, gold, copper, titanium, iron, manganese, silver, beryllium, and diamonds. These widespread mineral resources historically played a large role in the country's industrial growth. A chain of mineral resources stretches from the rich oil fields in northwest Azania, east through the central diamond-mining region in Moco Province, and into the Copper Belt region of northern Azania and Congo. A region of rich mineral deposits continues to the south called the Great Dyke in the central southeast, through the uwanja basin into southern Azania. This extends southwest toward the southern coast. Mining activity exists across the eastern region. Diamond mining is also found in parts of south-central Azania and along the western coast. Coal can be found in central, southeastern and southern Azania.

In 1963, the Azanian government established the Azanian sovereign wealth fund, which would be funded with both oil and mineral revenues, including taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees. The government controls its petroleum and mineral resources through a combination of state ownership of major operators in the oil fields and mines and the fully state-owned PetroAzania (petroleum production) and SMA (resource extraction). The government also controls licensing of exploration and production of oil fields and mines. The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Azania.

Demographics


Census

Pop.

%+


1816

5,720,503

-

1820

6,414,231

1830

8,562,123

1840

11,359,438

1850

15,433,809

1860

20,925,009

1870

25,659,957

1880

33,400,086

1890

41,911,990

1900

50,717,934

1910

61,376,535

1920

70,555,575

1930

81,989,303

1940

87,953,329

1950

100,704,809

1960

119,336,599

1970

135,234,167

1980

150,762,476

1990

165,512,296

2000

187,281,622

2010

205,465,036

2020

220,574,000

The Azanian Statistics Authority reported 220,574,683 residents as of 2020. This makes Azania the world's 6th-most populous nation, behind Pakistan and ahead of Brazil, and the most populous nation in Africa and the southern hemisphere. In 2020 the median age of the Azanian population was 35.5 years. Azania is an outlier among developed countries for its relatively young population: In 2020, 24.3% of Azanians were children under the age of 15, 55.7% were between 15 and 64 years of age, and 20.0% were 65 or older. Population growth however has, since the 1970s, decreased to replacement birth rates of 2.6 per woman. This was the outcome of several years of government policy to promote sustainable population growth to ensure adequate usage of national resources to provide for the population internally.

In 2020, there were just over 33 million immigrants and Azanian-born children of immigrants in Azania, accounting for about 15% of the overall Azanian population. The ancestry of the people of Azania is widely varied. In addition to its variation, the ancestry of the Azanian people is also marked by significant amounts of intermarriage between ethnic and racial groups. In theory, there are several means available to discover the ancestry of the people living in Azania, including genealogy, genetics, oral and written history, and analysis of population census schedules. In practice, only a few of these have been used for a larger part of the population.

About 80% of Azanians live in urban areas, including suburbs; about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000. In 2020, over 250 municipalities had populations of over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and seven cities had over two million (namely Kweneng, Ustawi, Luanda, Ushirikiano, Zvongombe, Benguela, and Itheku). Many Azanian metropolitan populations are growing rapidly.

The sex ratio in Azania has historically been skewed towards the female side, with there being 1.13 women per 1 man in 2020. Child mortality rates have been at their lowest levels in Azanian history, following government programs to promote proper childbirth practices and training of midwives. Since the 1960s, 80% of all Azanian newborns are delivered in hospitals, compared with just 30-35% in the 1930-40s. The government has slowly but surely been moving toward the outlawing of traditional midwives to remove any threat of infant mortality, and acts such as Linkfemale genital mutilation have been outlawed and punishable by law since the 1880s. Overall, mortality rates in the country are low thanks to better sanitation and agricultural development, preventing the spread of malnutrition and illness in the population. The eradication of the Linktsetse fly in the 1960s through the use of various methods such as wild game destruction, Linkpesticides, and tactical use of deforestation, has likewise had a beneficial effect on the health of the population.

Languages

Kiswahili is the only official language of Azania, as well as the most commonly spoken language throughout the country, despite only being ranked fourth as a spoken first language. There are approximately ten national languages in Azania, with the three largest being chiShona, Kikongo, and Nguni. None of the national languages within Azania have official status but are afforded special status which entitles speakers to several cultural protections and government sponsorship programs. All permanent residents are encouraged to have at least a minimal level of fluency in Kiswahili. On the provincial level, provinces are allowed to have any number of official languages. The only limitation on this allowance is that all signs within the province must have a Kiswahili translation printed on them, and the Kiswahili text must be bigger than the text of the other language. Due to these nationwide policies, Azania has experienced a high degree of integration among its immigrant population, with the second and third-generation immigrants adopting Kiswahili as their first language, and making their transition into Azanian life and culture a seamless experience.

Within the Azanian education system, Kiswahili is compulsory for all students beginning from the age of six, though national languages can be taught alongside Kiswahili. Several universities specialising in the field of national languages exist throughout Azania, such as the Shona Language Institute of Azania and the Kikongo University of Azania, which provide PhD-level degrees for graduates seeking a career in linguistics. Likewise, the Azanian Institute for Aboriginal African Languages was established in 1947 in Khorixas and has maintained a large student body, predominately among the aboriginal Azanian population seeking to maintain a depository of knowledge on their traditional tongues which are in danger of disappearing from popular memory.

Urbanisation

TBD

Largest cities

Rank

City

Population (2020 est.)

Metro area population (2020 est.)

Province

1

Kweneng

9,253,213

23,689,255

2

Ustawi

8,970,219

20,210,563

3

Luanda

5,677,643

9,894,212

4

Ushirikiano

4,708,120

6,497,384

5

Zvongombe

4,316,127

5,737,270

6

Benguela

3,978,487

7,213,109

7

Itheku

2,567,118

6,550,960

8

Mwalusaka

1,422,420

3,338,330

9

Lydsaamheid

1,343,266

2,501,372

10

Chiveve

1,013,616

1,766,823

Kweneng

Ustawi

Luanda

Ushirikiano

Religion

The constitution of Azania guarantees freedom of religion, though it does not explicitly prohibit the Bunge from passing laws banning certain religions within the country. Any belief systems that are predicted on warped power dynamics harmful to the adherents physically, mentally, or financially, demand total devotion to a cult leader as a person, or revolve around a doomsday prediction that requires the active pursuit of its initiation by human hands, are considered a threat to the state and its population. As such, the government is quick to shut down any movements that follow these doctrines, and actively prosecutes any individuals attempting to lead or recruit others into such cults.

Azania has the world's second-largest atheist population, after China. In a 2015 intercensal survey, more than 80% of the population - accounting for over 180 million people - described themselves as atheist or simply having no religion, up from about 70% in 2000.

Traditional faiths are the most widely practised religions in Azania, with over 15.7 million Azanians (or just over 7% of the population) describing themselves as a member of a traditional faith in 2015. Traditional Azanian faiths are highly diverse and include various ethnic religions. Generally, these religions are orally transmitted rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs, and festivals, including belief in higher and lower deities, sometimes including a supreme creator deity, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional medicine. Most Azanian traditional faiths can be described as animistic with various polytheistic aspects. Animism builds the core concept of the Azanian traditional faiths, similar to other traditional African religions. This includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife.

Education

Responsibility for educational supervision in Azania is primarily vested in the national government, though certain functions are devolved to the provincial level. Optional preschool education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. Secondary education is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education. A system of apprenticeship leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. This model was instituted by prime minister Rapulana Direko in 1976, who observed the success of the model in Germany and other countries where it had been implemented.

Most Azanian universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is a graduation certificate from a secondary school, informally known as a Cheti. In recent years, Azania has emerged as one of the leading destinations worldwide for international study. The established universities in Azania include some of the oldest in Africa, with the University of Ushirikiano (founded in 1838) being the oldest in Azania. In 1853, the university became the first in Azania to adopt the Humboldtian model of higher education, integrating the arts and sciences with research to achieve both comprehensive general learning and cultural knowledge, setting a trend that eventually culminated in the founding of the first research university in Azania, the Ustawi School of Mining, in 1881.

Healthcare

TBD

Culture


Azanian culture is characterised by diversity, which is reflected in a wide range of traditional customs. Modern Azanian culture derives from an amalgamation of a wide variety of indigenous cultures and traditions, with influences from many other sources, including European, Middle Eastern, and Asian cultures. Azania is home to many notable contributors to literature, art, architecture, music and the sciences.

Azanian culture as a distinct entity can be traced to before the foundation of the country. In early modern Azanian history, the Eseningizimu Confederacy was a pact between pre-Azanian independent kingdoms formed to counteract Portuguese imperialism. The population of the Eseningizimu states, although culturally similar, considered themselves to be distinct peoples. The coming centuries, however, would see the development of a quasi-Eseningizimu, proto-Azanian cultural identity forged from the amalgamation of the different cultures of the confederacy. The ethnolinguistic similarity between the many peoples of the Eseningizimu states made significant cultural exchange possible, which, together with concurrent economic integration, was largely responsible for the gradual withering of ethnic boundaries.

From the 19th century, there were conscious attempts to foster an "Azanian" national identity. The Kuzaa was a 19th-century political-cultural movement supported by the Azanian government, various institutions, scholars, the press and intellectuals. Its aim was the promotion and strengthening of traditions and customs perceived to be 'Azanian' to create a defence against the cultural dimensions of European imperialism. The Azanian government became a major patron of the arts, especially the visual, literary, and performing arts, sponsoring artists through cultural grants.

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