by Max Barry

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3

The Language

Aurun Language


The language of Auruna is obviously Aurun (kila auruni), spoken by the majority of the population in Auruna. It is a Uralic language in the Finnic branch mixed in with a bit of Slavic and Germanic. It modifies and inflects nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals, and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence.

Due to the similarities, other Uralic languages (Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, etc.) can understand Aurun but with some varying degrees of difficulty.

It has a shared morphology (albeit modified slightly due to the Germanic and some Slavic influences) and vocabulary with the other Uralic languages.

There are two kinds of main varieties of Aurun: Standard Aurun (nukanne auruni) and Formal Aurun (koikanne auruni). Standard Aurun is mainly used in the usual everyday life in personal communication, at home or workplace. While Formal Aurun is used in formal situations like political speeches and newscasts, and most of literary works.



Alphabet

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Ä

Ë

Ö

Ü

Ÿ

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

t

u

v

w

x

y

z

ä

ë

ö

ü

˙


Simple Starter Words
Hello - Zdrastzi / Zdravo / Zdravo'(k/g)a (Formal)
Hello / Hi / Hey - Hei / Hej
Goodbye - Heinna / Innaien / Ein / Inna
Please - Ienne
Sorry - Zividä / Aanta
Thanks/Thank You - Adni
Yes - Ya
No - Nie
Is - On
Are - Onne
For - Vär
Of - Zie
And - On / Unta / Unt
The - On
Do - Tej

Pronouns
I / Me / My - Ya
Mine - Ya onna
You - Tu
Yours - Tunne
Our / Ours - Menne (inclusive) / L˙v˙ (exclusive)
We / Us - Mennä (inclusive) / L˙va (exclusive)
He / Him - En / Ennä
She / Her - Än / Ennä
It - Es
They - Nej
Their - Nejä
Them - Nimä
This - Etä
These - Enetä
Those - Etaana
That - Siednä
There - Siejä

Reflexive

Pronoun + -kuu

Examples:
Themselves - Nimäkuu
Ourselves - Mennekuu
Yourself - Tunnekuu
Myself - Yannakuu
Himself/ Herself - Ennäkuu
Itself - Esnäkuu

People
Person - Ihma
Man - Masa
Woman - Naka
Boy - Pojka
Girl - Tüttö
Child - Läppä
Baby - Läppämi

Interrogative
What - Mitä / Menä
Which - Ekkä
Who - Oku
Whose - Okken
Where - Mistä
Why / How - Kaku
When - Kuuin
Whether / Whatsoever - Kis

Yes-no questions
Interrogative particle kau at the end of the sentence.

Example:
Do you want food? - Tu tej halla on essa kau?

Food
Food - Essa
Eat - Esta
Eat food - Esta esseni
Hungry - Estainne
Hunger - Estainnan
Cook - Kokka
Coffee - Kävhä
Bread - Brod
Cake - Keika
Cookie / Pastry / Biscuit - Kypa
Sugar - Zökker
Salt - Sola
Pepper - Pipanne
Fish - Kala
Sauce - Kastan
Water - Vesä
Beer - Olen
Vodka - Vod
Ice - Eis / Jau
Meat - Liha
Pork - Svanha
Beef - Lënnäha
Chicken - Häänha

Fruits
Fruit - Frükka
Apple - Ömmä
Orange - Oranje
Banana - Banan
Grapes - Viinnankassi
Strawberry - Maaisakkas
Pineapple - Ananas
Melon - Melonii
Watermelon - Vesänmelonii

Animals
Animal - Änä
Cat - Kasa
Dog - Kuki / Kuka
Bird - Lind
Pig - Svanu
Cow - Lënnä
Chicken - Hääne
Wolf - Mika / Vukko
Fox - Kina
Rabbit - Häkä
Lion - Löve
Tiger - Tiker
Eagle - Avi / Auri
Falcon / Hawk - Hauka
Bear - Arkku

Baby Animals
Animal + -mi
The -mi comes from mimi meaning small

Example:
Kitten - Kasami
Puppy - Kukimi / Kukami
Chick - Lindemi / Häänemi

Nature
Land - Maana / Enna
Island - Saa / Ennami
Forest - Messa
Tree - Poi
Plant - Kiena
Grass - Rova
Snow - Lumi / Lapi
Rain - Vesätuo
Lake - Javi
River - Jükki
Sea - Meraa
Ocean - Särimera
Sky - Hima
Cloud - Piva

Colours
White - Vellaa
Black - M˙stai
Grey - S˙rai
Red - Kräsnaa
Blue - S˙nnaa
Green - Virnaa
Yellow - Keilnaa
Orange - Orannaa
Violet - Violaunaa
Pink - Rozannaa

Shade of Colour
Suffix -aa for light and normal colours and suffix -ai for dark colours.
-aa comes from the word kaa (light)
-ai comes from the word tai (dark)

Example:
Dark red - Kräsnai
Light grey - S˙raa

Tertiary Colours
Follows the connecting -n- rule.
Primary colour + -n- + secondary colour

Example:
Blue-violet - S˙nnanviolaunaa
Red-orange - Kräsnanorannaa
Yellow-green - Keilnanvirnaa

Time and Date
Day - Paivu / Täg
Night - Yönnä / Näkt
Morning - Amta
Noon - Kesä
Afternoon - Kesänpaivu
Evening - Även
Week - Vik
Month - Kö
Year - Jörä

Examples of Time:
Tö amta - 2 am / two in the morning (lit. Two morning)
Tö on tö amta - 2:02 am (lit. Two and two morning)

Days of the week
Monday - Maantäg
Tuesday - Töntäg
Wednesday - Valantäg
Thursday - Tärstäg
Friday - Verjentäg
Saturday - Salentäg
Sunday - Suunnantäg

Months
January - Tamakö
February - Halenkö
March - Maalankö
April - Orelkkö
May - Mäikö
June - Valankö
July - Juhenkö
August - Akkoskö
September - Setankö
October - Aktenkö
November - Sännekö
December - Ollenkö



Compound Words
When combining two words together (example: food names), there should always be an -n- in between the two words if the first word ends with a vowel. Although in some cases, the n is not needed when connecting or combining two words.

Examples:
First word ends with a vowel
Kävhänkeika - Coffee cake

First word doesn't end with a vowel
Zökkerbrod - Sweet bread

First word ends with a vowel but no connecting 'n'
Keikakö - Cake month



Sentence Structure and Syntax
Aurun has a much freer word order but revolves around the main subject word. It may change meanings depending on the inflection of the words. Almost all words are inflected according to their roles in the sentence: verbs, nouns, pronouns, numerals, adjectives, and some particles. The original suffixes may disappear leaving the modification of the root. The usual neutral order is subject-verb-object.

Examples:
I ate the food.

Ya estan essena.
Essena yanna estaa.
Estena yanna essen.
Esta essen yani.

Changing the word order changes the emphasis slightly but not the fundamental meaning of the sentence.

In questions, the meaning of the question may change depending on which word is emphasized using the suffixes -koi / -ki / ko / -n(a)/ -ä / -a(a) (for nouns) and -n / -en / -na(n) / -ne (for verbs and rarely, pronouns).

Examples:
On kalakoi esse? - Did the fish eat?
Tu essena kala? - Did you eat the fish?
Tunne essen kala? - Did the fish eat you?

When words are emphasized, they are usually the primary subject but if there are multiple words emphasized, the primary subject is usually the first or last word in a sentence. While the word order changed, the meaning of the sentence is the same. Although this is rarely used in modern Standard Aurun.

Examples:
Kukaa essena kala. - The dog ate the fish.
Kala essena kukaa. - The fish was eaten by the dog.


Grammar

Noun Cases
Aurun has 17 noun cases. Like the other languages in the Uralic family, Aurun makes extensive use of cases.

Case

Suffix

English prep.

Example

Translation

Grammatical

Nominative

-

-

Auvo on s˙rai

The car is grey

Genitive

-n
-en
-nen

-(-'s)

Auvon pör˙

The car's wheel

Accusative

-ni

-(object, whole)

Kjuka auvoni

Clean the car

Partitive

-(j)a
-(j)ä

-(object, part/incomplete)

Ya kjukan auvoja

I am cleaning the car

Locative (internal)

Inessive

-si

in

En on auvosi

He is in the car

Elative

-sin

from (inside)

Situ auvosin

Get out of the car

Illative

-san
-sän

into

Ya sitan auvosan

I'm going (in)to the car

Locative (internal)

Adessive

-li

at, on

En on auvoli

He is on the car

Ablative

-lis

from

En k˙lä auvolis

He is walking from the car

Allative

-lin

to

En k˙lä auvolin

He is walking to the car

Other

Exessive

-mat
-mät

from (a state)

En tenhänä tailan auvomat

He made the house from a car

Essive

-na
-nä

as

En kä˙nän auvo tailana

He is using the car as a house

Translative

-(na)ksa
-(nä)ksa

(turn) into

En varun es auvoksa

He is turning it into a car

Terminative

-(n)ima
-(n)imä

up to / until
as long / far as

En kä˙nän auvo hümmenimä

He is using the car until tomorrow

Instructive

-kii

with, using

En meri siejä auvokii

He went there using the car

Abessive

-kiin

without

En meri siejä auvokiin

He went there without the car

Comitative

-ke

together (with)

En meri siejä esüttäke

He went there with a friend

Plurals
The suffix -t/-et/-net is used for plurals at the end of the word after the case.
The -t is used for words that end with "e", including cases.
The -et is used for words that end with a consonant.
The -net is used for words that end with a vowel.

Examples:
"Tanks"
Panssariinet (singular: panssarii)

"With friends"
Esüttäket (singular: esüttäke)

"Maps"
Kartanet (singular: karta)

"From the cars"
Auvoliset (singular: auvolis)

"Clean the cars"
Kjuka auvoninet (singular: auvoni)


Aurun Orthography and Phonology
Aurun is written with the Latin alphabet with a few additional characters (ä, ë, ö, ü, ˙). Some characters (f, g, q, w, x) are used for loanwords of Slavic or Germanic origin. Aurun orthography follows the phoneme principle where each letter stands for one sound and each sound is always represented by the same letter, within the bounds of a single morpheme. This allows for easy spelling, reading, and writing acquisition. Certain loanwords may be modified to follow Aurun orthography.

IPA

Example

Pronunciation / English Approximation

CONSONANTS

b

brod

bread

d

dana

dog

f

faula

far

g

göt

gone

h

hana

hope

j

jörä

yes

k

keika

count

k:

vukko

bookkeeping

l

lumi

like

l:

ollenkö

taillight

m

meraa

mall

m:

kamma

roommate

n

nej

night

n:

enna

unnatural

ŋ

ng

sing

p

poi

pan

p:

lappi

upper

r

röva

rolled r, Finnish rauta / Spanish perro

s

sola

sound

s:

messa

dissatisfied

ʃ

shoklat

shine

t

tö

time

t:

tattu

attack

v

vukko

vine

ʋ

vuikau

between v and w

z

zividä

zoom

ʔ

zdravo'ga

pause in uh-oh

VOWELS

ɑ

essa

father, but short

ɑ:

estaa

father

æ

täg

cat

æ:

kukaa
hääne

mad

e

messa

tell

e:

lënna

pay (GA), mate

i

kis

see, but short / sit

i:

nie
kypa
miina

see

o

olen

off

o:

kokka

more

øː:

tö

like bird, German schön

u

kuka

goo, but shorter

u:

suunantäg

goo

y

senn˙
süü

like cute, French une

y:

üka

like few, German über

STRESS

'

hima ['hima]

Normally placed on the first syllable.

'

kävhänkeika ['kævhæn'kei̯ka]

Two syllables in compound words.

.

Auruna ['au̯.runa]
meraa ['me.ra:]

Secondary stress on middle r syllable.

Vowel Harmony
Just like in other Finnic languages, vowel harmony can be found in the Aurun language albeit in a different system and format. Similar to Finnish, the Aurun language have the three classes of vowels - front, neutral, and back. Neutral vowels can be found with either front or back vowels in a word but front and back vowels cannot be found with each other in a word. The only words that violate vowel harmony are loan words, names, and certain words that are not of Aurun or Finnic origin.

Front

Neutral

Back

ä

e

a

ö

ë

o

˙

i

u

ü

y

Note: ü is a neutral vowel in Aurun.

From vowel harmony it follows that the initial syllable of each single (non-compound) word controls the frontness or backness of the entire word. A back vowel causes all non-initial syllables to be realized with back (or neutral) vowels, and a front vowel causes all non-initial syllables to be realized with front (or neutral) vowels. Neutral vowels usually acts like a front vowel but doesn't control the frontness or backness of the word, unless it is followed by either a front or back vowel in the next syllable.

Examples:
Kävhä - Front vowels → Kävhänä
Hääne - Front and neutral vowels → Häänenä
Keika - Neutral and back vowels → Keikana
Hauka - Back vowels → Haukana

Vowel Harmony in other Dialects
The southern dialects (Sudennakuna) doesn't usually feature vowel harmony and in the northern dialects (Nörjänennakuna) heavily features vowel harmony.

Slang words are not subject to vowel harmony.

In Compound Words
Since vowel harmony can only be found in non-compound words, each root word in a compound word follows vowel harmony not the entire compound word.

Examples:
Kävhänkeika - Compound made up of kävhä and keika, both have vowel harmony.
Särimera - Compound made up of säri and meraa, both still have vowel harmony.

Words that take the end bits off another word and used as a suffix are still considered a compound.
Kräsnaa - The word is still a compound, -aa is taken from kaa.
M˙stai - Is also a compound, -ai is taken from tai.
Nimäkuu - Also a compound, -kuu is taken from kokuu.

Double Vowels
Double vowels usually indicate a longer sound like aa = [a:] but not in the case for the letter ü. Double front vowels formerly indicate a shortened sound but switched to avoid confusion. The üü remained but rarely used as it can be replaced with ˙.



Example of Beginner Phrases:
Zdravo, ya Daniil - Hello, I'm Daniil
Kaku on tu? - How are you?
Oku on tu? - Who are you?
Menä tunen nimi? - What is your name?
Ya hevä, adni - I'm good, thanks
Hevänamta - Good morning
Hevänpaivu - Good day
Hevänyönnä - Good night
Hevänkesänpaivu - Good afternoon
Hevänäven - Good evening
Hej, hevänpaivu, kaku on tu? - Hello, good day, how are you?
Ya oisi küt üka keika, ienne. - I would like one cake, please.
Tu oisi küt (jok)kävhä kau? - Would you like some coffee?



Optional: Fun Aurun Words
Küj - Idiot
Vittu / Vitta
Helvetta
Kurva
Paska
Kurad
Kürki
Kiilakuva



Longest Word
Auruna does not have a "longest word" due to its agglutinating nature. It is always possible to construct a longer one with enough creativity.

Examples:
Ikenekullukvälähimanartillerigrupen - self-propelled anti-air artillery group



Mutual Intelligibility
"A living fish swims underwater."

Aurun: Elävi kala üli äleninvesä.
Finnish: Elävä kala ui veden alla.
Estonian: Elav kala ujub vee all.
Hungarian: Eleven hal úszik a víz alatt.
High Kuyonnen (Hökkenkuyo): Aljivi kala üli üntervatten.
Standard Kuyonnen (Vanlagenkuyo): E aljivin fisk simman üntervatten.
Tälevani: Eilää kala ül älävesä.
Kurinna: Elä kala üta änä vetta.



Aurun in Japan
[This section will probably be in another factbook]
As a result of trade with the Japanese in certain regions, Aurun has been used and modified by the Japanese in those regions especially in Miyazaki and Kōchi.

Miyazaki Aurun (Miyazakina | Formerly, Hyūga Aurun or Hyuugakina) is Aurun in Miyazaki which is majority Aurun due to the trading between the Auruns and Japanese there for a long amount of time.

Kōchi Aurun (Kochikina| Formerly, Tosa Aurun or Tosakina) is Aurun in Kōchi which is majority Japanese but there are still a lot of Aurun that was adopted here. The Auruns didn't have a lot of time in Kōchi as they have in Miyazaki.

Simple explanation for both: Miyazakina and Kochikina are Japanese Aurun.

Both Miyazakina and Kochikina can be written in the Latin alphabet and the Japanese hiragana.

Examples:
"I"
Aurun: Ya
Hökkenkuyo: Ik
Tälevani: Ya
Kurinna: Ya
Miyazakina: Aya | あや
Kochikinna: Akaya | あかや

"Month"
Aurun: Kö
Hökkenkuyo: Kö
Tälevani: Kö
Kurinna: Ko
Miyazakina: Kou | かう
Kochikinna: Kou | かう

"Fish"
Aurun: Kala
Hökkenkuyo: Kala
Tälevani: Kala
Kurinna: Kala
Miyazakina: Akara | あから
Kochikina: Sakara | さから

"Fox"
Aurun: Kina
Hökkenkuyo: Kinna
Tälevani: Kina
Kurinna: Kana
Miyazakina: Kikuna | きくな
Kochikina: Kitsuna | きつな

"Kitten"
Aurun: Kasami
Hökkenkuyo: Katterå
Tälevani: Kasami
Kurinna: Kattani
Miyazakina: Kasami | かさみ
Kochikina: Miineko | みいねこ

Both Miyazakina and Kochikina use the Aurun interrogative particle kau (かつ) at the end of the sentence for questions not only yes-no questions like in Aurun. It is similar to the Japanese sentence-final particle ka (か) in function.

To be updated

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