First of all, the schooling system is entirely public, and public schooling is mandatory for all sapiants of the applicable ages. For those with lifespans dissimilar to humans of different developmental speeds, guidelines are revised as necessary.
Pre-K, K, and then Grades 1-6 of primary school and 7-12 of secondary school. Steering tends to start in secondary school, and classes in 11 and 12 particularly are geared based on a student's interest and intent beyond secondary school. The universal sequence is entirely free to the recipients.
- The Post Secondary Sequence consists of whatever education occurs beyond the universal sequence. As before, all universities in the system are public. Some are selective, but non-selective universities exist in the system, particularly with an emphasis on virtual and remote education (woo for VR).
- Citizens can access the post-secondary sequence at no cost to them if they have completed their National Service obligation.
- Those who have signed up for the National Service in a role that requires post-secondary training will receive their training at government expense before their National Service starts. If they default, they drop to the last group.
- Non-citizens who do not sign up for the national service pay for education in the Post-Secondary tier, at a cost similar to the Canadian system (not as expensive in the US, but not trivial).
- Same rules as the post-secondary sequence, except that it's rarely paid for before national service is complete (with exceptions: medical staff can be trained as part of the national service). The government will send people who re-up their national service contracts here for advanced training, or citizens who finished their service will go to the graduate sequence for masters/doctoral degrees. Non-citizens can pay for this training.
The schools themselves are located all over the place, geographically and in terms of selectivity; the GRA's most selective university is The University of Alexzonya at Horizon Center, but there are annexes and virtual programs and a bunch of different campus in the UA system. In a nation of 38 billion, there are more than a few very good schools. Our enclave at Liu Xiu even has a university annex, the University of Alexzonya at Hyperion Point. The robust public education system is a point of pride for the GRA, though in international affairs of course such things are often overlooked in favor of flashier developments.
Notably absent from the GRA's sequencing: military training, which unlike many FT nations is considered specialized and not done on a routine basis. Marine enlistees in the National Service will learn how to handle weapons, etc in the course of the pre-service training, distinct from the rest of the education system. Those that don't serve in Starfleet won't receive that training at all, in general, unless they plan to work as a police officer or some other role that would require them to learn the rudiments (in that case, at a specialized police academy as part of the post-secondary sequence).